Evidence for long-term efficacy and safety of gene therapy for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome in preclinical models.
ABSTRACT Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is a life-threatening X-linked disease characterized by immunodeficiency, thrombocytopenia, autoimmunity, and malignancies. Gene therapy could represent a therapeutic option for patients lacking a suitable bone marrow (BM) donor. In this study, we analyzed the long-term outcome of WAS gene therapy mediated by a clinically compatible lentiviral vector (LV) in a large cohort of was(null) mice. We demonstrated stable and full donor engraftment and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) expression in various hematopoietic lineages, up to 12 months after gene therapy. Importantly, we observed a selective advantage for T and B lymphocytes expressing transgenic WASP. T-cell receptor (TCR)-driven T-cell activation, as well as B-cell's ability to migrate in response to CXCL13, was fully restored. Safety was evaluated throughout the long-term follow-up of primary and secondary recipients of WAS gene therapy. WAS gene therapy did not affect the lifespan of treated animals. Both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tumors arose, but we excluded the association with gene therapy in all cases. Demonstration of long-term efficacy and safety of WAS gene therapy mediated by a clinically applicable LV is a key step toward the implementation of a gene therapy clinical trial for WAS.
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ABSTRACT: To discuss new data on the safety and efficacy of the ongoing gene therapy trials for primary immune deficiencies, the first reports of new trials and the preclinical developments that are likely to be translated to the clinic in the near future. Both clinical successes and severe adverse events continue to be reported in trials of gammaretroviral gene therapy for severe combined immune deficiency-X1, adenosine deaminase-deficient forms of severe combined immune deficiency and chronic granulomatous disease. Insertion site analyses of recently reported trials on all of these diseases have discovered preferential insertion in the 5' ends of genes, including potentially dangerous ones such as proto-oncogenes and signal transduction and proliferation genes. Preclinical work on rodent and canine models has tested novel vectors, including lentiviruses and foamy viruses. Gene therapy for the most common forms of severe combined immune deficiency can lead to immune reconstitution in most patients, although a minority of patients has derived minimal clinical benefit and some have suffered severe adverse events including death. Ongoing preclinical work attempts to address the latter shortcoming. Meanwhile, in the presence of a careful risk-benefit assessment, gene therapy remains an appropriate subject of clinical investigation.Current opinion in hematology 08/2008; 15(4):375-80. · 5.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked congenital immune-deficiency syndrome, and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has become a curative modality. However, the transplant with the alternative donor needed more intensive conditioning with increased treatment-related toxicities. Recently, fludarabine-based reduced toxicity myeloablative conditioning regimens have been developed for adult myeloid malignancies with promising results of good engraftment and low treatment-related toxicities. To increase the engraftment potential without serious complications, a boy with WAS received successful unrelated BMT with a reduced toxicity myeloablative conditioning regimen composed of fludarabine (40 mg/m2) on days -8, -7, -6, -5, -4, -3), busulfan (0.8 mg/kg i. v. q 6 hr on days -6, -5, -4, -3), and thymoglobulin (2.5 mg/kg on days -4, -3, -2). This novel conditioning regimen could improve the outcome of allogeneic transplantation for other non-malignant diseases such as congenital immune-deficiency syndromes or metabolic storage diseases.Journal of Korean Medical Science 03/2008; 23(1):146-8. · 1.25 Impact Factor
Article: The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked disorder with variable clinical phenotypes that correlate with the type of mutations in the WAS protein (WASP) gene. WASP, a key regulator of actin polymerization in hematopoietic cells, has 5 well-defined domains that are involved in signaling, cell locomotion, and immune synapse formation. WASP facilitates the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappaB and was shown to play an important role in lymphoid development and in the maturation and function of myeloid monocytic cells. Mutations of WASP are located throughout the gene and either inhibit or dysregulate normal WASP function. Analysis of a large patient population demonstrates a phenotype-genotype correlation: classic WAS occurs when WASP is absent, X-linked thrombocytopenia when mutated WASP is expressed, and X-linked neutropenia when missense mutations occur in the Cdc42-binding site. The progress made in dissecting the function of WASP has provided new diagnostic possibilities and has propelled our therapeutic strategies from conservative symptomatic treatment to curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and toward gene therapy.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 05/2006; 117(4):725-38; quiz 739. · 12.05 Impact Factor