Late complications of vertebral artery dissection in children: pseudoaneurysm, thrombosis, and recurrent stroke.
ABSTRACT Craniocervical arterial dissection is an important cause of childhood arterial ischemic stroke, accounting for 7.5% to 20% of cases. Significant neurologic morbidity and mortality may result and recurrence risk may be higher than in adults. However, the natural history and long-term outcome of pediatric dissection are poorly studied. We report 3 cases of extracranial vertebral artery dissection with complications including pseudoaneurysm formation, recurrent stroke, and late spontaneous thrombosis of the dissected artery. These cases illustrate the dynamic processes involved in vascular injury and healing of vertebral artery dissection in children over years, with potential implications for long-term management and prevention of recurrence.
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ABSTRACT: Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) has been well described in the adult trauma literature. The risk factors, proper screening, and treatment options are well known. In pediatric trauma, there has been very little research performed regarding this injury. We hypothesize that the incidence of BCVI in children is lower than the 1% reported incidence in adult studies and that many children at risk are not being screened properly. This is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients (<15 years) admitted with blunt trauma to six American College of Surgeons-verified Level 1 pediatric trauma centers between October 2009 and June 2011. All patients with head, neck, or face injuries who were high risk for BCVI based on Memphis criteria were analyzed. Of 5,829 blunt trauma admissions, 538 patients had at least one of the Memphis criteria. Only 89 (16.5%) of these patients were screened (16 patients had more than one test) by angiography (64 by computed tomography angiography, 39 by magnetic resonance angiography, and 2 by conventional angiography), while 459 (83.5%) were not screened. Screened patients differed from unscreened patients in Injury Severity Score (ISS) (22.6 ± 13.3 vs. 13.3 ± 9.9, p < 0.0001) and head and neck Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score (3.7 ± 1.2 vs. 2.8 ± 1.2, p < 0.0001). The incidence of BCVI in our total population was 0.4% (23 patients). Of the 23 patients with BCVI, 3 (13%) had no risk factors for the injury. The odds of having sustained BCVI in a patient with one or more of the risk factors was 4.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-14.2). BCVI in Level 1 pediatric trauma centers is diagnosed less frequently than in adult centers. However, screening was performed in a minority of high-risk patients who may explain the reported lower incidence of BCVI in children. Pediatric surgeons need to become more vigilant about screening pediatric patients with high-risk criteria for BCVI. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV.12/2013; 75(6):1006-1012. DOI:10.1097/TA.0b013e31829d3526
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ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of vascular injury in pediatric trauma is challenging as clinical signs may be masked by physiologic compensation. We aimed to (1) investigate the prevalence of noniatrogenic pediatric venous injuries, (2) discuss options in management of traumatic venous injury, and (3) investigate mortality from venous injury in pediatric trauma. Our objective was to provide the practicing clinician with a summary of the published literature and to develop an evidence-based guide to the diagnosis and management of traumatic venous injuries in children.Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 08/2014; 77(2):356-363. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000312 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Craniocervical arterial dissections (CCADs) represent a preventable cause of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Our objective was to describe clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment strategies, and report clinical and imaging outcomes of CCADs at a large pediatric tertiary referral center. Electronic medical records were queried using variations of the word dissection for patients under 25 years of age with neuroimaging over a 13-year period. Medical and imaging records were reviewed to identify carotid, vertebral, or intracranial dissections. Demographics, presenting symptoms, presence of AIS, mechanism of injury, dissection location, dissection treatment, and complications stemming from treatment were collected. Clinical outcome was classified according to modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Imaging follow-up was obtained until the dissection healed or stabilized. A total 6,289 patients met initial search criteria. Of the 42 (0.7 %) patients with CCADs, 23 (54.8 %) had internal carotid artery (ICA) dissections, and 17 (40.5 %) had vertebrobasilar (VB) dissections. More females had ICA dissections (p = 0.002), and more males had VB dissections (p = 0.01). CCADs associated with traumatic presentation occurred in 34 patients (81.0 %), while 8 (19.0 %) were spontaneous. Good outcomes (mRS 0-3) were noted for 36 patients, and 5 had poor outcomes (mRS 4-6). In the 17 patients with vessel occlusion, 50.0 % had partial or complete recanalization at a mean follow-up of 23.9 months. CCAD is commonly related to trauma and presents with AIS. The majority of patients experience good clinical outcome. Recanalization of initial vessel occlusion occurs in half of cases at 2 years.Child s Nervous System 09/2014; 31(1). DOI:10.1007/s00381-014-2547-8 · 1.16 Impact Factor