FOXO3a is involved in the apoptosis of naked oocytes and oocytes of primordial follicles from neonatal rat ovaries.
ABSTRACT Inhibition of the forkhead transcription factor, FOXO3a, can promote the transition from primordial to primary follicle and subsequent follicle development in mammalian ovaries. Stem cell factor (SCF) initiates anti-apoptotic signaling from its membrane receptor, c-kit, to Bcl-2 family members through PI3K/AKT in oocytes of primordial follicles. However, whether FOXO3a mediates the apoptosis of naked oocytes and oocytes of primordial follicles remains unknown. In the present study, oocytes from nests and primordial follicles from neonatal rat ovaries were cultured, and oocyte apoptosis was examined using the TUNEL technique. The pro-apoptotic action of FOXO3a and the potential signal transduction pathways were investigated using RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. Culturing oocytes in the presence of SCF did not affect the level of total FOXO3a protein, but rapidly elevated the level of phosphorylated FOXO3a (indicating functional suppression). As phosphorylated FOXO3a increased, oocyte apoptosis was inhibited. The specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY 294002, abolished the phosphorylation of FOXO3a and the anti-apoptotic action of SCF. SCF down-regulated the expression of p27KIP1 and pro-apoptotic factors such as Bim, Bad, and Bax, and this activity was reversed by LY 294002. SCF up-regulated the expression of MnSOD, which was also inhibited by LY 294002. However, SCF had no effect on Bcl-2 protein. These results suggest that FOXO3a is involved in oocyte apoptosis in the neonatal rat ovary, and the SCF-PI3K/Akt-FOXO3a signaling pathway mediates oocyte apoptosis and primordial follicle formation.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The differentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) into functional oocytes is important for the continuation of species. In mammals, PGCs begin to differentiate into oocytes during embryonic development. Oocytes develop in clusters called germ line cysts. During fetal or neonatal development, germ cell cysts break apart into single oocytes that become surrounded by pregranulosa cells to form primordial follicles. During the process of cyst breakdown, a subset of cells in each cyst undergoes cell death with only one-third of the initial number of oocytes surviving to form primordial follicles. The mechanisms that control cyst breakdown, oocyte survival, and follicle assembly are currently under investigation. This review describes the mechanisms that have been implicated in the control of primordial follicle formation, which include programmed cell death regulation, growth factor and other signaling pathways, regulation by transcription factors and hormones, meiotic progression, and changes in cell adhesion. Elucidation of mechanisms leading to formation of the primordial follicle pool will help research efforts in ovarian biology and improve treatments of female infertility, premature ovarian failure, and reproductive cancers.Reproduction 11/2011; 143(2):139-49. · 3.56 Impact Factor
- 04/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0466-7
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aim:To investigate whether NO over-production in rat mesangial cells cultured in high glucose (HG) is related to activation of the TGF-β1/PI3K/Akt pathway.Methods:Rat mesangial cells line (HBZY-1) was exposed to HG (24.44 mmol/L) or H2O2 (10 μmol/L) for 16 h. NO release was quantified using the Griess assay. The TGF-β1 level was measured using ELISA. The protein expression of p-Akt, t-Akt, Bim, and iNOS was examined by Western blotting. The mRNA levels of TGF-β1 and Bim were measured using RT-PCR. The cell proliferation rate was estimated using a BrdU incorporation assay.Results:Treatment of the cells with HG, H2O2, or TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) significantly increased the NO level that was substantially inhibited by co-treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI), TGF-β1 inhibitor SB431542, or PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Both HG and H2O2 significantly increased the protein and mRNA levels of TGF-β1 in the cells, and HG-induced increases of TGF-β1 protein and mRNA were blocked by co-treatment with DPI. Furthermore, the treatment with HG or H2O2 significantly increased the expression of phosphorylated Akt and iNOS and cell proliferation rate, which was blocked by co-treatment with DPI, SB431542, or LY294002. Moreover, the treatment with HG or H2O2 significantly inhibited Bim protein and mRNA expression, which was reversed by co-treatment with DPI, SB431542, or LY294002.Conclusion:The results demonstrate that high glucose causes oxidative stress and NO over-production in rat mesangial cells in vitro via decreasing Bim and increasing iNOS, which are at least partially mediated by the TGF-β1/PI3K/Akt pathway.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 03/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor