Positioning of micelle-bound peptides by paramagnetic relaxation enhancements.
ABSTRACT Many peptides, proteins, and drugs interact with biological membranes, and knowing the mode of binding is essential to understanding their biological functions. To obtain the complete orientation and immersion depth of such a compound, the membrane-mimetic system (micelle) is placed in an aqueous buffer containing the soluble and inert paramagnetic contrast agent Gd(DTPA-BMA). Paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs) of a specific nucleus then depend only on its distance from the surface. The positioning of a structurally characterized compound can be obtained by least-squares fitting of experimental PREs to the micelle center position. This liquid-state NMR approach, which does not rely on isotopic labeling or chemical modification, has been applied to determine the location of the presumed transmembrane region 7 of yeast V-ATPase (TM7) and the membrane-bound antimicrobial peptide CM15 in micelles. TM7 binds in a trans-micelle orientation with the N-terminus being slightly closer to the surface than the C-terminus. CM15 is immersed unexpectedly deep into the micelle with the more hydrophilic side of the helix being closer to the surface than the hydrophobic one.
- SourceAvailable from: Abdul-Hamid Emwas[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new approach for determining the membrane immersion depth of a spin-labeled probe has been developed using paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. A DOXYL spin label was placed at different sites of 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PSPC) phospholipid bilayers as paramagnetic moieties and the resulting enhancements of the longitudinal relaxation (T₁) times of ³¹P nuclei on the surface of the bilayers were measured by a standard inversion recovery pulse sequence. The ³¹P NMR spin-lattice relaxation times decrease steadily as the DOXYL spin label moves closer to the surface as well as the concentration of the spin-labeled lipids increase. The enhanced relaxation vs. the position and concentration of spin-labels indicate that PRE induced by the DOXYL spin label are significant to determine longer distances over the whole range of the membrane depths. When these data were combined with estimated correlation times τ(c), the r⁻⁶-weighted, time-averaged distances between the spin-labels and the ³¹P nuclei on the membrane surface were estimated. The application of using this solid-state NMR PRE approach coupled with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) may be a powerful method for measuring membrane protein immersion depth.Journal of Magnetic Resonance 11/2010; 207(1):89-94. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many naturally occurring bioactive peptides bind to biological membranes. Studying and elucidating the mode of interaction is often an essential step to understand their molecular and biological functions. To obtain the complete orientation and immersion depth of such compounds in the membrane or a membrane-mimetic system, a number of methods are available, which are separated in this review into four main classes: solution NMR, solid-state NMR, EPR and other methods. Solution NMR methods include the Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) between peptide and membrane signals, residual dipolar couplings and the use of paramagnetic probes, either within the membrane-mimetic or in the solvent. The vast array of solid state NMR methods to study membrane-bound peptide orientation and localization includes the anisotropic chemical shift, PISA wheels, dipolar waves, the GALA, MAOS and REDOR methods and again the use of paramagnetic additives on relaxation rates. Paramagnetic additives, with their effect on spectral linewidths, have also been used in EPR spectroscopy. Additionally, the orientation of a peptide within a membrane can be obtained by the anisotropic hyperfine tensor of a rigidly attached nitroxide label. Besides these magnetic resonance techniques a series of other methods to probe the orientation of peptides in membranes has been developed, consisting of fluorescence-, infrared- and oriented circular dichroism spectroscopy, colorimetry, interface-sensitive X-ray and neutron scattering and Quartz crystal microbalance.Current Protein and Peptide Science 10/2011; 13(3):267-79. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In studies of membrane proteins, knowledge of protein topology can provide useful insight into both structure and function. In this work, we present a solution NMR method for the measurement the tilt angle and average immersion depth of alpha helices in membrane proteins, from analysis of the paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancements arising from dissolved oxygen. No modification to the micelle or protein is necessary, and the topology of both transmembrane and amphipathic helices are readily determined. We apply this method to the measure the topology of a monomeric mutant of phospholamban (AFA-PLN), a 52-residue membrane protein containing both an amphipathic and a transmembrane alpha helix. In dodecylphosphocholine micelles, the amphipathic helix of AFA-PLN was found to have a tilt angle of 87° ± 1° and an average immersion depth of 13.2 Å. The transmembrane helix was found to have an average immersion depth of 5.4 Å, indicating residues 41 and 42 are closest to the micelle centre. The resolution of paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancements from dissolved oxygen compares favourably to those from Ni (II), a hydrophilic paramagnetic species.Journal of Biomolecular NMR 09/2011; 51(1-2):173-83. · 2.85 Impact Factor