Structural basis for high-affinity peptide inhibition of p53 interactions with MDM2 and MDMX.

Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 04/2009; 106(12):4665-70. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0900947106
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The oncoproteins MDM2 and MDMX negatively regulate the activity and stability of the tumor suppressor protein p53--a cellular process initiated by MDM2 and/or MDMX binding to the N-terminal transactivation domain of p53. MDM2 and MDMX in many tumors confer p53 inactivation and tumor survival, and are important molecular targets for anticancer therapy. We screened a duodecimal peptide phage library against site-specifically biotinylated p53-binding domains of human MDM2 and MDMX chemically synthesized via native chemical ligation, and identified several peptide inhibitors of the p53-MDM2/MDMX interactions. The most potent inhibitor (TSFAEYWNLLSP), termed PMI, bound to MDM2 and MDMX at low nanomolar affinities--approximately 2 orders of magnitude stronger than the wild-type p53 peptide of the same length (ETFSDLWKLLPE). We solved the crystal structures of synthetic MDM2 and MDMX, both in complex with PMI, at 1.6 A resolution. Comparative structural analysis identified an extensive, tightened intramolecular H-bonding network in bound PMI that contributed to its conformational stability, thus enhanced binding to the 2 oncogenic proteins. Importantly, the C-terminal residue Pro of PMI induced formation of a hydrophobic cleft in MDMX previously unseen in the structures of p53-bound MDM2 or MDMX. Our findings deciphered the structural basis for high-affinity peptide inhibition of p53 interactions with MDM2 and MDMX, shedding new light on structure-based rational design of different classes of p53 activators for potential therapeutic use.

Download full-text


Available from: Guozhang Zou, Jul 03, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play central roles in orchestrating biological processes. While some PPIs are stable, many important ones are transient and hard to detect with conventional approaches. We developed ReBiL, a recombinase enhanced bimolecular luciferase complementation platform, to enable detection of weak PPIs in living cells. ReBiL readily identified challenging transient interactions between an E3 ubiquitin ligase and an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. ReBiL's ability to rapidly interrogate PPIs in diverse conditions revealed that some stapled α-helical peptides, a class of PPI antagonists, induce target-independent cytosolic leakage and cytotoxicity that is antagonized by serum. These results explain the requirement for serum-free conditions to detect stapled peptide activity, and define a required parameter to evaluate for peptide antagonist approaches. ReBiL's ability to expedite PPI analysis, assess target specificity and cell permeability, and reveal off-target effects of PPI modifiers should facilitate the development of effective, cell-permeable PPI therapeutics and the elaboration of diverse biological mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell Reports 11/2014; 9(5). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.10.058 · 7.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of the interactions between the tumor suppressor protein p53 and its negative regulators, the MDM2 and MDMX oncogenic proteins, is increasingly gaining interest in cancer therapy and drug design. In this study, we carry out molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann and generalized Born/surface area (MM-PB/GBSA) binding free energy calculations on an active compound 3a and an inactive compound NC-1, which share a common pyrrolopyrimidine-based scaffold. MD simulations and MM-PB/GBSA calculations show that the compound NC-1 may not bind to MDM2 and MDMX, in agreement with the experimental results. Detailed MM-PB/GBSA calculations on the MDM2-3a and MDMX-3a complexes unravel that the binding free energies are similar for the two complexes. Furthermore, the van der Waals energy is the largest component of the binding free energy for both complexes, which indicates that the interactions between the compound 3a and MDM2 and MDMX are dominated by shape complementarity. In addition, the analysis of individual residue contribution and protein-ligand binding mode show that the three functional groups on R₁, R₂, and R₃ of the compound 3a can mimic the spatial orientation of the side chains of Phe19, Trp23, and Leu26 of p53, respectively. The obtained computational results suggest that the compound 3a can act as a dual inhibitor of MDM2-p53 and MDMX-p53 interactions, consistent with the experimental results.
    Journal of molecular graphics & modelling 07/2011; 30:167-78. DOI:10.1016/j.jmgm.2011.07.003 · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer cells neutralize p53 by deletion, mutation, proteasomal degradation, or sequestration to achieve a pathologic survival advantage. Targeting the E3 ubiquitin ligase HDM2 can lead to a therapeutic surge in p53 levels. However, the efficacy of HDM2 inhibition can be compromised by overexpression of HDMX, an HDM2 homolog that binds and sequesters p53. Here, we report that a stapled p53 helix preferentially targets HDMX, blocks the formation of inhibitory p53-HDMX complexes, induces p53-dependent transcriptional upregulation, and thereby overcomes HDMX-mediated cancer resistance in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, our analysis of p53 interaction dynamics provides a blueprint for reactivating the p53 pathway in cancer by matching HDM2, HDMX, or dual inhibitors to the appropriate cellular context.
    Cancer cell 11/2010; 18(5):411-22. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2010.10.024 · 23.89 Impact Factor