Physical activity and clinical and functional status in COPD.
ABSTRACT The mechanisms underlying the benefits of regular physical activity in the evolution of COPD have not been established. Our objective was to assess the relationship between regular physical activity and the clinical and functional characteristics of COPD.
Three hundred forty-one patients were hospitalized for the first time because of a COPD exacerbation in nine teaching hospitals in Spain. COPD diagnosis was confirmed by spirometry under stable conditions. Physical activity before the first COPD hospitalization was measured using the Yale questionnaire. The following outcome variables were studied under stable conditions: dyspnea, nutritional status, complete lung function tests, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, bronchial colonization, and systemic inflammation.
The mean age was 68 years (SD, 9 years), 93% were men, 43% were current smokers, and the mean postbronchodilator FEV(1) was 52% predicted (SD, 16% predicted). Multivariate linear regression models were built separately for each outcome variable and adjusted for potential confounders (including remaining outcomes if appropriate). When patients with the lowest quartile of physical activity were compared to patients in the other quartiles, physical activity was associated with significantly higher diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco) [change in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of physical activity, compared with first quartile (+ 6%, + 6%, and + 9% predicted, respectively; p = 0.012 [for trend])], expiratory muscle strength (maximal expiratory pressure [Pemax]) [+ 7%, + 5%, and + 9% predicted, respectively; p = 0.081], 6-min walking distance (6MWD) [+ 40, + 41, and + 45 m, respectively; p = 0.006 (for trend)], and maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)peak) [+ 55, + 185, and + 81 mL/min, respectively; p = 0.110 (for trend)]. Similarly, physical activity reduced the risk of having high levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (odds ratio, 0.78, 0.61, and 0.36, respectively; p = 0.011) and C-reactive protein (0.70, 0.51, and 0.52, respectively; p = 0.036) in multivariate logistic regression.
More physically active COPD patients show better functional status in terms of Dlco, Pemax, 6MWD, Vo(2)peak, and systemic inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: Quantification of physical activities in daily life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has increasing clinical interest. However, detailed comparison with healthy subjects is not available. Furthermore, it is unknown whether time spent actively during daily life is related to lung function, muscle force, or maximal and functional exercise capacity. We assessed physical activities and movement intensity with the DynaPort activity monitor in 50 patients (age 64 +/- 7 years; FEV1 43 +/- 18% predicted) and 25 healthy elderly individuals (age 66 +/- 5 years). Patients showed lower walking time (44 +/- 26 vs. 81 +/- 26 minutes/day), standing time (191 +/- 99 vs. 295 +/- 109 minutes/day), and movement intensity during walking (1.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.5 m/second2; p < 0.0001 for all), as well as higher sitting time (374 +/- 139 vs. 306 +/- 108 minutes/day; p = 0.04) and lying time (87 +/- 97 vs. 29 +/- 33 minutes/day; p = 0.004). Walking time was highly correlated with the 6-minute walking test (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001) and more modestly to maximal exercise capacity, lung function, and muscle force (0.28 < r < 0.64, p < 0.05). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are markedly inactive in daily life. Functional exercise capacity is the strongest correlate of physical activities in daily life.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2005; 171(9):972-7. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represent a major burden for patients and health care systems. Respiratory rehabilitation may improve prognosis in these patients by addressing relevant risk factors for exacerbations such as low exercise capacity. To study whether respiratory rehabilitation after acute exacerbation improves prognosis and health status compared to usual care, we quantified its effects using meta-analyses. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials identified by searches in six electronic databases, contacts with experts, hand-searches of bibliographies of included studies and conference proceedings. We included randomized trials comparing the effect of respiratory rehabilitation and usual care on hospital admissions, health-related quality of life (HRQL), exercise capacity and mortality in COPD patients after acute exacerbation. Two reviewers independently selected relevant studies, extracted the data and evaluated the study quality. We pooled the results using fixed effects models where statistically significant heterogeneity (p < or = 0.1) was absent. We identified six trials including 230 patients. Respiratory rehabilitation reduced the risk for hospital admissions (pooled relative risk 0.26 [0.12-0.54]) and mortality (0.45 [0.22-0.91]). Weighted mean differences on the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire were 1.37 (95% CI 1.13-1.61) for the fatigue domain, 1.36 (0.94-1.77) for emotional function and 1.88 (1.67-2.09) for mastery. Weighted mean differences for the St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire total score, impacts and activities domains were -11.1 (95% CI -17.1 to -5.2), -17.1 (95% CI -23.6 to -10.7) and -9.9 (95% CI -18.0 to -1.7). In all trials, rehabilitation improved exercise capacity (64-215 meters in six-minute walk tests and weighted mean difference for shuttle walk test 81 meter, 95% CI 48-115). Evidence from six trials suggests that respiratory rehabilitation is effective in COPD patients after acute exacerbation. Larger trials, however, are needed to further investigate the role of respiratory rehabilitation after acute exacerbation and its potential to reduce costs caused by COPD.Respiratory research 02/2005; 6:54. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and accurate estimates of the prevalence of this disease are needed to anticipate the future burden of COPD, target key risk factors, and plan for providing COPD-related health services. We aimed to measure the prevalence of COPD and its risk factors and investigate variation across countries by age, sex, and smoking status. Participants from 12 sites (n=9425) completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. COPD prevalence estimates based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease staging criteria were adjusted for the target population. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for COPD associated with 10-year age increments and 10-pack-year (defined as the number of cigarettes smoked per day divided by 20 and multiplied by the number of years that the participant smoked) increments. Meta-analyses provided pooled estimates for these risk factors. The prevalence of stage II or higher COPD was 10.1% (SE 4.8) overall, 11.8% (7.9) for men, and 8.5% (5.8) for women. The ORs for 10-year age increments were much the same across sites and for women and men. The overall pooled estimate was 1.94 (95% CI 1.80-2.10) per 10-year increment. Site-specific pack-year ORs varied significantly in women (pooled OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.15-1.42, p=0.012), but not in men (1.16, 1.12-1.21, p=0.743). This worldwide study showed higher levels and more advanced staging of spirometrically confirmed COPD than have typically been reported. However, although age and smoking are strong contributors to COPD, they do not fully explain variations in disease prevalence-other factors also seem to be important. Although smoking cessation is becoming an increasingly urgent objective for an ageing worldwide population, a better understanding of other factors that contribute to COPD is crucial to assist local public-health officials in developing the best possible primary and secondary prevention policies for their regions.The Lancet 10/2007; 370(9589):741-50. · 39.06 Impact Factor