Vitamin D is essential in bone and muscle health. Severe deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels < 25 nmol/l) can result in rickets and osteomalacia, fractures, myopathy and falls. All recent recommendations on vitamin D agree that children and adults should reach a target 25-hydroxyvitamin D range of at least 50 nmol/l (threshold for normal vitamin D status) and 50 % of the population may be below that threshold. A vitamin D intake of 600 to 800 IU per day as recommended today will prevent about 97 % of children and adults from vitamin D deficiency. Notably, a higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D threshold of more than 60 nmol/l is needed for optimal functionality, fall and fracture in adults age 65 and older.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, the issue of osteopenia/osteoporosis in children, adolescents and young adults with thalassaemia major (TM) has attracted much attention because it is a prominent cause of morbidity despite adequate transfusion and iron chelation therapy. The reported frequency of osteoporosis, even in well treated TM patients varies from 13.6% to 50% with an additional 45% affected by osteopenia. The pathogenesis of TM-induced osteoporosis is multifactorial. Genetic and acquired factors play role in demineralization of bones in thalassemia. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and disruption of bone architecture, resulting in reduced bone strength and increased risk of fractures. The significant predictors of fracture prevalence include male gender, hypothyroidism, age, lack of spontaneous puberty in females, active hepatitis, heart disease and diabetes. The early identification of osteopenia and osteoporosis is of paramount importance. This is because delayed diagnosis and inadequate treatment have led to severe osteoporosis, skeletal abnormalities, fractures, spinal deformities, nerve compression and growth failure. dequate hormonal replacement, has been posponed, Effective iron chelation adequate hormonal replacement, improvement of hemoglobin levels, calcium and vitamin D administration and physical activity are currently the main measures for the management of the disease. The use of bisphosphonates in TM patients with osteoporosis is increasing and their positive effect in improving bone mineral density is encouraging. The recommendations of the International Network on Growth Disorders and Endocrine Complications in Thalassaemia (I-CET) for diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in TM are also briefly included in this review.
Pediatric endocrinology reviews: PER 12/2013; 11(2):167-80.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by airway obstruction and inflammation but also accompanied by several extrapulmonary consequences, such as skeletal muscle weakness and osteoporosis. Skeletal muscle weakness is of major concern, since it leads to poor functional capacity, impaired health status, increased healthcare utilization, and even mortality, independently of lung function. Osteoporosis leads to fractures and is associated with increased mortality, functional decline, loss of quality of life, and need for institutionalization. Therefore, the presence of the combination of these comorbidities will have a negative impact on daily life in patients with COPD. In this review, we will focus on these two comorbidities, their prevalence in COPD, combined risk factors, and pathogenesis. We will try to prove the clustering of these comorbidities and discuss possible preventive or therapeutic strategies.
03/2014; 2014:965764. DOI:10.1155/2014/965764
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