[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impaired social interactions, language deficits, as well as restrictive or repetitive behaviors. ASD is clinically heterogeneous with a complex etiopathogenesis which may be conceptualized as a dynamic interplay between heterogeneous environmental cues and predisposing genetic factors involving complex epigenetic mechanisms. Inherited and de novo copy number variants provide novel information regarding genes contributing to ASD. Epigenetic marks are stable, yet potentially reversible, chromatin modifications that alter gene expression profiles by locally changing the degree of nucleosomal compaction, thereby opening or closing promoter access to the transcriptional machinery. Here, we review progress on studies designed to provide a better understanding of how epigenetic mechanisms impact transcriptional programs operative in the brain that contribute to ASD.
International Review of Neurobiology 08/2014; 115:203-44. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-801311-3.00006-8 · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The present research work was aimed to produce gluten-free and casein free (GFCF) cupcakes for autistic children. Methods: Corn, rice, carrot, orange sweet potato and chickpea flours were used in different blends to formulate C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , P 1 , P 2 , and P 3 , respectively. Chemical, physical, textural and sensory evaluation was performed to assess the nutritional and technological qualities of the cupcakes. Results: The results of the nutritional quality of the cupcakes indicated significant increase in protein, crude fiber, calcium (Ca) and Zinc (Zn) contents and significant decrease in total carbohydrates (TC) and caloric value. While, significant fluctuations in fat and iron (Fe) contents were observed. ß-carotene content ranged from 253.34 to 1569.36 μg/100g cupcake and vitamin A content ranged from 21.11 to 130.78 μg RAE (as ß-carotene). Water content and water activity (a w) measurements predicted the stability and keeping safety and quality of the prepared cupcakes (except for P 2). Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) showed a significant increase in hardness, gumminess and chewiness and a significant decrease in cohesiveness and springiness. While, adhesiveness, showed erratic results. Significant differences were found in appearance, crust and crumb colors, crumb texture, odor and taste of the cupcakes expressed by experienced panelists. The acceptance rating score of C 1 that exhibited the best nutritional and technological qualities was highly ranked for overall liking of the autistic children and two-thirds of them expressed their willingness to eat C 1 again. Conclusion: the usefulness of using different blends of corn, rice, carrot, orange sweet potato and chickpea flours in GFCF cupcake formulations as a valuable food addition to enhance the nutritional and technological qualities of the GFCF cupcakes. The most valuable cupcake sample with the highest acceptability was the C 1 .
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