Efficiency of siRNA delivery by lipid nanoparticles is limited by endocytic recycling

The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Nature Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 39.08). 06/2013; 31(7). DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2614
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite efforts to understand the interactions between nanoparticles and cells, the cellular processes that determine the efficiency of intracellular drug delivery remain unclear. Here we examine cellular uptake of short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivered in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) using cellular trafficking probes in combination with automated high-throughput confocal microscopy. We also employed defined perturbations of cellular pathways paired with systems biology approaches to uncover protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions. We show that multiple cell signaling effectors are required for initial cellular entry of LNPs through macropinocytosis, including proton pumps, mTOR and cathepsins. siRNA delivery is substantially reduced as ≅70% of the internalized siRNA undergoes exocytosis through egress of LNPs from late endosomes/lysosomes. Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) is shown to be an important regulator of the major recycling pathways of LNP-delivered siRNAs. NPC1-deficient cells show enhanced cellular retention of LNPs inside late endosomes and lysosomes, and increased gene silencing of the target gene. Our data suggest that siRNA delivery efficiency might be improved by designing delivery vehicles that can escape the recycling pathways.

Download full-text


Available from: Emmanouil D. Karagiannis, Jul 07, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Given the rise of antibiotic resistance and other difficult-to-treat diseases, genetic vaccination is a promising preventative approach that can be tailored and scaled according to the vector chosen for gene delivery. However, most vectors currently utilized rely on ubiquitous delivery mechanisms that ineffectively target important immune effectors such as antigen presenting cells (APCs). As such, APC targeting allows the option for tuning the direction (humoral vs cell-mediated) and strength of the resulting immune responses. In this work, we present the development and assessment of a library of mannosylated poly(beta-amino esters) (PBAEs) that represent a new class of easily synthesized APC-targeting cationic polymers. Polymeric characterization and assessment methodologies were designed to provide a more realistic physiochemical profile prior to in vivo evaluation. Gene delivery assessment in vitro showed significant improvement upon PBAE mannosylation and suggested that mannose-mediated uptake and processing influence the magnitude of gene delivery. Furthermore, mannosylated PBAEs demonstrated a strong, efficient, and safe in vivo humoral immune response without use of adjuvants when compared to genetic and protein control antigens. In summary, the gene delivery effectiveness provided by mannosylated PBAE vectors offers specificity and potency in directing APC activation and subsequent immune responses.
    Biomaterials 10/2014; 37. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.10.037 · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intracellular delivery of functionally active proteins into cells is emerging as a novel strategy for research and therapeutic applications. Here, we present the properties of a self-assembling pyridylthiourea-modified polyethylenimine (πPEI), which interacts with proteins and promotes their delivery into the cytosol of mammalian cells. In aqueous medium at pH7.4, self-association of πPEI in the presence of green fluorescent proteins (GFP) leads to supramolecular protein-entrapped assemblies. These assemblies protect GFP from losing its fluorescence upon pH variation and assist delivery/translocation into the cytosol of mammalian cells via the endocytic pathway. The scope of application of this delivery system was extended to antibodies against intracellular targets as illustrated using a monoclonal antibody directed against the HPV-16 viral E6 oncoprotein and an antibody directed against the threonine-927 phosporylation site of the EG5 kinesin spindle protein. The πPEI-mediated delivery of native anti-E6 antibodies or anti-E6 antibodies equipped with a nuclear localization signal (NLS), led to regeneration of the p53 tumor suppression protein in E6-transformed CaSki cells. Delivery of functionally active anti-EG5 antibodies, with the same polymer, reduced HeLa cell viability and appeared to perturb, as expected, chromosome segregation during mitosis. Altogether, these results provide an easy to use delivery system for extending the scope of application of antibodies for epitope recognition within living cells and may provide novel opportunities for selective interference of cell function by a steric hindrance modality.
    Journal of Controlled Release 01/2014; 178. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.01.017 · 7.26 Impact Factor
  • Nature Biotechnology 07/2013; 31(7):611-2. DOI:10.1038/nbt.2634 · 39.08 Impact Factor