Anhedonia is the inability to experience pleasure from normally pleasant stimuli. Although anhedonia is a prominent feature of many psychiatric disorders, trait anhedonia is also observed dimensionally in healthy individuals. Currently, the neurobiological basis of anhedonia is poorly understood because it has been mainly investigated in patients with psychiatric disorders. Thus, previous studies have not been able to adequately disentangle the neural correlates of anhedonia from other clinical symptoms. In this study, trait anhedonia was assessed in well-characterized healthy participants with no history of Axis I psychiatric illness. Functional magnetic resonance imaging with musical stimuli was used to examine brain responses and effective connectivity in relation to individual differences in anhedonia. We found that trait anhedonia was negatively correlated with pleasantness ratings of music stimuli and with activation of key brain structures involved in reward processing, including nucleus accumbens (NAc), basal forebrain and hypothalamus which are linked by the medial forebrain bundle to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Brain regions important for processing salient emotional stimuli, including anterior insula and orbitofrontal cortex were also negatively correlated with trait anhedonia. Furthermore, effective connectivity between NAc, VTA and paralimbic areas, that regulate emotional reactivity to hedonic stimuli, was negatively correlated with trait anhedonia. Our results indicate that trait anhedonia is associated with reduced reactivity and connectivity of mesolimbic and related limbic and paralimbic systems involved in reward processing. Critically, this association can be detected even in individuals without psychiatric illness. Our findings have important implications both for understanding the neurobiological basis of anhedonia and for the treatment of anhedonia in psychiatric disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable: (1) when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2) when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3) when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 08/2015; 9:404. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00404 · 2.99 Impact Factor
"These findings suggest that the interaction between reward regions may be accountable for the increased reward salience/motivation in substance abusing individuals. Inversely, in a study that looked at the opposing process of hypo-responsivity to reward, namely, anhedonia or the inability to experience pleasure, it was found that attenuated functional connectivity within reward areas (NAc, paralimbic areas) was associated with trait anhedonia (Keller et al., 2013). In summary, sensitivity to rewards appears to be associated with greater functional coherence or integration of the reward network. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Emergent studies show that similar to other substances of abuse, cue-reactivity to cannabis is also associated with neural response in the brain's reward pathway (Filbey et al., 2009). However, the inter-relatedness of brain regions during cue-reactivity in cannabis users remains unknown
In this study, we conducted a series of investigations to determine functional connectivity during cue-reactivity in 71 cannabis users. First, we used psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to examine coherent neural response to cannabis cues. Second, we evaluated whether these patterns of network functional connectivity differentiated dependent and non-dependent users. Finally, as an exploratory analysis, we determined the directionality of these connections via Granger connectivity analyses
PPI analyses showed reward network functional connectivity with the nucleus accumbens (NAc) seed region during cue exposure. Between-group contrasts found differential effects of dependence status. Dependent users (N = 31) had greater functional connectivity with amygdala and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) seeds while the non-dependent users (N = 24) had greater functional connectivity with the NAc, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and hippocampus seeds. Granger analyses showed that hippocampal and ACG activation preceded neural response in reward areas
Both PPI and Granger analyses demonstrated strong functional coherence in reward regions during exposure to cannabis cues in current cannabis users. Functional connectivity (but not regional activation) in the reward network differentiated dependent from non-dependent cannabis users. Our findings suggest that repeated cannabis exposure causes observable changes in functional connectivity in the reward network and should be considered in intervention strategies.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence 07/2014; 140. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.04.002 · 3.42 Impact Factor
"Maternal behavior is profoundly associated with the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, which projects from DA cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area to the ventral striatum (Numan and Stolzenberg 2009) and is a major component of the brain reward system (Robbins and Everitt 1996). Dysfunction of the reward system causes anhedonia (Keller et al. 2013), a core symptom of major depression, and may disrupt maternal behavior. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various mutations have occurred during evolution among orthologues, genes in different species that diverged from a common ancestral gene by speciation. Here we report the remarkable deterioration of a characteristic mammalian maternal behaviour, pup retrieval, in non-mammalised mice, in which the transcription factor Pou3f2 was replaced with the Xenopus orthologue lacking all of the homopolymeric amino acid repeats of mammalian POU3F2. Most of the pups born to the non-mammalised mice died within days after birth, depending on the dam genotype alone. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis revealed decreases in the rate-limiting enzymes of dopamine and serotonin synthesis in various brain structures. Similar results were obtained in knock-in mice in which all of the homopolymeric amino acid repeats of mammalian POU3F2 were removed. Pup retrieval behaviour in mammals is thus strongly related to monoamine neurotransmitter levels via the acquisition of homopolymeric amino acid repeats during mammalian evolution.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.