Comparative Physical Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Fillers

Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01701, USA.
Dermatologic Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.11). 03/2009; 35 Suppl 1(1):302-12. DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4725.2008.01046.x
Source: PubMed


Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers are becoming the material of choice for use in cosmetic soft tissue and dermal correction. HA fillers appear to be similar, but their physical characteristics can be quite different. These differences have the potential to affect the ability of the physician to provide the patient with a natural and enduring result.
The objective of this article is to discuss the key physical properties and methods used in characterizing dermal fillers. These methods were then used to analyze several well-known commercially available fillers.
Analytical methods were employed to generate data on the properties of various fillers. The measured physical properties were concentration, gel-to-fluid ratio, HA gel concentration, degree of HA modification, percentage of cross-linking, swelling, modulus, and particle size.
The results demonstrated that commercial fillers exhibit a wide variety of properties.
Combining the objective factors that influence filler performance with clinical experience will provide the patient with the optimal product for achieving the best cosmetic result. A careful review of these gel characteristics is essential in determining filler selection, performance, and patient expectations.

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    • "Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a member of the glycosaminoglycans , composed of a repeated sequence of D-glucuronic acid and D-N-acetyl glucosamine moieties, which are linked through alternating β-1,4 and β-1,3 glycosidic bonds. HA is involved naturally in tissue repair and tissue formation by enhancing cell migration, proliferation and cell differentiation for bone and cartilage repair (Aslan et al., 2006; Kablik et al., 2009; Volpi et al., 2009). It also exhibits angiogenesis, tissue homeostasis, tissue remodelling by binding to the cellular proteoglycan receptors family, such as the hyaladhedrins (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in tissue engineering have enabled the development of bioactive composite materials to generate biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds for bone replacement therapies. Polymeric biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds architecturally mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM), delivering tremendous regenerative potential for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, biocompatible poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone)–silk fibroin–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid (PLACL–SF–HaP–HA) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning to mimic the native ECM. The developed nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized in terms of fibre morphology, functional group, hydrophilicity and mechanical strength, using SEM, FTIR, contact angle and tabletop tensile-tester, respectively. The nanofibrous scaffolds showed a higher level of pore size and increased porosity of up to 95% for the exchange of nutrients and metabolic wastes. The fibre diameters obtained were in the range of around 255 ± 13.4–789 ± 22.41 nm. Osteoblasts cultured on PLACL–SF–HaP–HA showed a significantly (p < 0.001) higher level of proliferation (53%) and increased osteogenic differentiation and mineralization (63%) for the inclusion of bioactive molecules SF–HA. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) data proved that the presence of calcium and phosphorous in PLACL–SF–HaP–HA nanofibrous scaffolds was greater than in the other nanofibrous scaffolds with cultured osteoblasts. The obtained results for functionalized PLACL–SF–HaP–HA nanofibrous scaffolds proved them to be a potential biocomposite for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/term.2083 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    • "Frequency sweep measurements were performed at σ = 5 Pa over a frequency range of 0.1–10 Hz, at temperatures of 25 °C and 37 °C. This narrow range of frequency refers to the physiological stresses to which soft tissues are commonly subjected [30] [31] [32] [33]. Storage modulus (G′) and complex viscosity (η*) values were extrapolated at the frequency of 0.7 Hz, which is typically used to compare the rheological properties of injectable hydrogels [31] [32] [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, a novel injectable biocomposite hydrogel is produced by internal gelation, using pectin as organic matrix and hydroxyapatite either as crosslinking agent and inorganic reinforcement. Tunable gelling kinetics and rheological properties are obtained varying the hydrogels' composition, with the final aim of developing systems for cell immobilization. The reversibility by dissolution of pectin-hydroxyapatite hydrogels is achieved with saline solutions, to possibly accelerate the release of the cells or active agents immobilized. Texture analysis confirms the possibility of extruding the biocomposites from needles with diameters from 20G to 30G, indicating that they can be implanted with minimally-invasive approaches, minimizing the pain during injection and the side effects of the open surgery. L929 fibroblasts entrapped in the hydrogels survive to the immobilization procedure and exhibit high cell viability. On the overall, these systems result to be suitable supports for the immobilization of cells for tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 12/2014; 45:154–161. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.09.003 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Some reported that the HA content, degree of crosslinking, and cohesive properties of the filler contributed to the degradation resistance7,8. Others reported that the type and extent of crosslinking, gel concentration, and degree of swelling determined the degradation rate of cross-linked HA hydrogels5,9. In addition to the aforementioned factors, it is likely that other attributes are also accountable for the degradation of HA gels. "
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundA variety of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers demonstrate unique physical characteristics, which affect the quality of the HA filler products. The critical factors that affect the degradation of HA gels have not yet been determined.ObjectiveOur objective was to determine the characteristics of HA gels that affect their resistance to the degradation caused by radicals and enzymes.MethodsThree types of HA fillers for repairing deep wrinkles, Juvederm Ultra Plus (J-U), Restylane Perlane (Perlane), and Cleviel, were tested in this study. The resistance of these HA fillers to enzymatic degradation was measured by carbazole and displacement assays using hyaluronidase as the enzyme. The resistance of these fillers to radical degradation was measured by the displacement assay using H2O2.ResultsDifferent tests for evaluating the degradation resistance of HA gels can yield different results. The filler most susceptible to enzymatic degradation was J-U, followed by Perlane and Cleviel. The HA filler showing the highest degree of degradation caused by H2O2 treatment was Perlane, followed by J-U, and then Cleviel. Cleviel showed higher enzymatic and radical resistances than J-U and Perlane did. Furthermore, it exhibited the highest resistance to heat and the lowest swelling ratio among all the fillers that were examined.ConclusionThe main factor determining the degradation of HA particles is the gel swelling ratio, which is related to the particle structure of the gel. Our in vitro assays suggest that the decrease in the swelling ratio will lead to a retarding effect on the degradation of HA fillers.
    Annals of Dermatology 06/2014; 26(3):357-62. DOI:10.5021/ad.2014.26.3.357 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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