About "axial" and "radial" diffusivities.
ABSTRACT This article presents the potential problems arising from the use of "axial" and "radial" diffusivities, derived from the eigenvalues of the diffusion tensor, and their interpretation in terms of the underlying biophysical properties, such as myelin and axonal density. Simulated and in vivo data are shown. The simulations demonstrate that a change in "radial" diffusivity can cause a fictitious change in "axial" diffusivity and vice versa in voxels characterized by crossing fibers. The in vivo data compare the direction of the principle eigenvector in four different subjects, two healthy and two affected by multiple sclerosis, and show that the angle, alpha, between the principal eigenvectors of corresponding voxels of registered datasets is greater than 45 degrees in areas of low anisotropy, severe pathology, and partial volume. Also, there are areas of white matter pathology where the "radial" diffusivity is 10% greater than that of the corresponding normal tissue and where the direction of the principal eigenvector is altered by more than 45 degrees compared to the healthy case. This should strongly discourage researchers from interpreting changes of the "axial" and "radial" diffusivities on the basis of the underlying tissue structure, unless accompanied by a thorough investigation of their mathematical and geometrical properties in each dataset studied.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mara Cercignani, Jun 11, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate how retrospective head motion correction strategies affect the estimation of scalar metrics commonly used in clinical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies along with their across-session reproducibility errors. Materials and Methods: Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AD) and their respective across-session reproducibility errors were measured on a 4T test–retest dataset of healthy participants using five processing pipelines. These differed in: 1) the number of b0 volumes used for motion correction reference (one or five); 2) the estimations of the gradient matrix rotation (based on 6 or 12 degrees of freedom derived from coregistration); and 3) the software packages used (FSL or DTIPrep). Biases and reproducibility were evaluated in three regions of interest (ROIs) (bilateral arcuate fasciculi, cingula, and the corpus callosum) and also at the full brain level with tract based skeleton images. Results: Preprocessing choices affected DTI measures and their reproducibility. The DTIPrep pipeline exhibited higher DTI metrics: FA/MD and AD (P < 0.05) relative to FSL pipelines both at the ROI and full brain level, and lower RD estimates (P < 0.05) at the ROI level. Within FSL pipelines no such effects were found (P-values ranging between 0.25 and 0.97). The DTIPrep pipeline showed the highest number of white matter skeleton voxels, with significantly higher reproducibility (P < 0.001) relative to the other pipelines (tested on P < 0.01 uncorrected maps). Conclusion: The use of an iteratively averaged b0 image as motion correction reference (as performed by DTIPrep) affects both scalar values and improves test–retest reliability relative to the other tested pipelines. These considerations are potentially relevant for data analysis in longitudinal DTI studies. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/jmri.24965 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diffusion tensor imaging studies show age-related differences in cerebral white matter (WM). However, few have studied WM changes over time, and none evaluated individual differences in change across a wide age range. Here, we examined 2-year WM change in 96 healthy adults (baseline age, 19-78 years), individual differences in change, and the influence of vascular and metabolic risk thereon. Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity (RD) represented microstructural properties of normal-appearing WM within 13 regions. Cross-sectional analyses revealed age-related differences in all WM indices across the regions. In contrast, latent change score analyses showed longitudinal declines in axial diffusivity in association and projection fibers and increases in anterior commissural fibers. FA and RD evidenced a less consistent pattern of change. Metabolic risk mediated the effects of age on FA and RD change in corpus callosum body and dorsal cingulum. These findings underscore the importance of longitudinal studies in evaluating individual differences in change and the role of metabolic factors in shaping trajectories of brain aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Neurobiology of Aging 02/2015; 36(5). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.02.001 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The SORL1 rs2070045 polymorphism was reported to be associated with SorLA expression in the brain and the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the influence of this polymorphism on cognitive functioning is likely to be moderated by sex. This study aimed to examine the sex moderation on the effects of rs2070045 on neuropsychological performance and the cingulum integrity in Chinese Han population. In this study, 780 non-demented older adults completed a battery of neuropsychological scales. Diffusion tensor images (DTI) of 126 subjects were acquired. We adopted the atlas-based segmentation strategy calculated the DTI indices of the bilateral cingulum and cingulum hippocampal part for each subject. We used a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to compare the cognitive performance and DTI differences between the rs2070045 genotype. Controlling for age, education and the APOE ɛ4 status, the influence of sex on the effects of the rs2070045 polymorphism on executive function was observed. We also found an interaction between sex and the rs2070045 polymorphism on the white matter (WM) microstructure of the left cingulum hippocampal part. Furthermore, the mean diffusivity and axial diffusivity of the tract were associated with Trail Making Test performance in T/T men. These results hint that sex moderates the association between the rs2070045 polymorphism and executive function, as well as the WM integrity of the left cingulum hippocampal part. Our findings underscore the importance of considering the influence of sex when examining the candidate genes for cognitive abilities and AD.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 19 January 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.1.Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2015; 40(6). DOI:10.1038/npp.2015.1 · 7.83 Impact Factor