Molecular analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 gene in 34 Niemann-Pick C Italian patients: identification and structural modeling of novel mutations.
ABSTRACT Niemann-Pick C, the autosomal recessive neuro-visceral disease resulting from a failure of cholesterol trafficking within the endosomal-lysosomal pathway, is due to mutations in NPC1 or NPC2 genes. We characterized 34 unrelated patients including 32 patients with mutations in NPC1 gene and two patients in NPC2 gene. Overall, 33 distinct genotypes were encountered. Among the 21 unpublished NPC1 alleles, 15 were due to point mutations resulting in 13 codon replacements (p.C100S, p.P237L, p.R389L, p.L472H, p.Y634C, p.S636F, p.V780G, p.Q921P, p.Y1019C, p.R1077Q, p.L1102F, p.A1187V, and p.L1191F) and in two premature stop codons (p.R934X and p.Q447X); a new mutant carried two in cis mutations, p.[L648H;M1142T] and four other NPC1 alleles were small deletions/insertions leading both to frame shifts and premature protein truncations (p.C31WfsX26, p.F284LfsX26, p.E1188fsX54, and p.T1205NfsX53). Finally, the new intronic c.464-2A>C change at the 3' acceptor splice site of intron 4 affected NPC1 messenger RNA processing. We also found a new NPC2 mutant caused by a change of the first codon (p.M1L). The novel missense mutations were further investigated by two bioinformatics approaches. Panther proein classification system computationally predicted the detrimental effect of all new missense mutations occurring at evolutionary conserved positions. The other bioinformatics approach was based on prediction of structural alterations induced by missense mutations on the NPC1 atomic models. The in silico analysis predicted protein malfunctioning and/or local folding alteration for most missense mutations. Moreover, the effects of the missense mutations (p.Y634C, p.S636F, p.L648H, and p.V780G) affecting the sterol-sensing domain (SSD) were evaluated by docking simulation between the atomic coordinates of SSD model and cholesterol.
Article: Niemann-Pick disease type C.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick C disease (NP-C) is a neurovisceral atypical lysosomal lipid storage disorder with an estimated minimal incidence of 1/120,000 live births. The broad clinical spectrum ranges from a neonatal rapidly fatal disorder to an adult-onset chronic neurodegenerative disease. The neurological involvement defines the disease severity in most patients but is typically preceded by systemic signs (cholestatic jaundice in the neonatal period or isolated spleno- or hepatosplenomegaly in infancy or childhood). The first neurological symptoms vary with age of onset: delay in developmental motor milestones (early infantile period), gait problems, falls, clumsiness, cataplexy, school problems (late infantile and juvenile period), and ataxia not unfrequently following initial psychiatric disturbances (adult form). The most characteristic sign is vertical supranuclear gaze palsy. The neurological disorder consists mainly of cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and progressive dementia. Cataplexy, seizures and dystonia are other common features. NP-C is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner and is caused by mutations of either the NPC1 (95% of families) or the NPC2 genes. The exact functions of the NPC1 and NPC2 proteins are still unclear. NP-C is currently described as a cellular cholesterol trafficking defect but in the brain, the prominently stored lipids are gangliosides. Clinical examination should include comprehensive neurological and ophthalmological evaluations. The primary laboratory diagnosis requires living skin fibroblasts to demonstrate accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in perinuclear vesicles (lysosomes) after staining with filipin. Pronounced abnormalities are observed in about 80% of the cases, mild to moderate alterations in the remainder ("variant" biochemical phenotype). Genotyping of patients is useful to confirm the diagnosis in the latter patients and essential for future prenatal diagnosis. The differential diagnosis may include other lipidoses; idiopathic neonatal hepatitis and other causes of cholestatic icterus should be considered in neonates, and conditions with cerebellar ataxia, dystonia, cataplexy and supranuclear gaze palsy in older children and adults. Symptomatic management of patients is crucial. A first product, miglustat, has been granted marketing authorization in Europe and several other countries for specific treatment of the neurological manifestations. The prognosis largely correlates with the age at onset of the neurological manifestations.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2010; 5:16. · 5.83 Impact Factor