Article

The prevalence of computer and Internet addiction among pupils

Department of Adult Psychiatry, Medical University, Łódź, Poland.
Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej (Advances in Hygiene and Experimental Medicine) (Impact Factor: 0.63). 01/2009; 63:8-12.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Media have an influence on the human psyche similar to the addictive actions of psychoactive substances or gambling. Computer overuse is claimed to be a cause of psychiatric disturbances such as computer and Internet addiction. It has not yet been recognized as a disease, but it evokes increasing controversy and results in mental disorders commonly defined as computer and Internet addiction.
This study was based on a diagnostic survey in which 120 subjects participated. The participants were pupils of three kinds of schools: primary, middle, and secondary school (high school). Information for this study was obtained from a questionnaire prepared by the authors as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Psychological Inventory of Aggression Syndrome (IPSA-II).
he results confirmed that every fourth pupil was addicted to the Internet. Internet addiction was very common among the youngest users of computers and the Internet, especially those who had no brothers and sisters or came from families with some kind of problems. Moreover, more frequent use of the computer and the Internet was connected with higher levels of aggression and anxiety.
Because computer and Internet addiction already constitute a real danger, it is worth considering preventive activities to treat this phenomenon. It is also necessary to make the youth and their parents aware of the dangers of uncontrolled Internet use and pay attention to behavior connected with Internet addiction.

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    • "However, while the Internet has become a channel that promotes access to information and communication, as any other technologycal tools, its misuse and overuse can cause various personal and social problems (Beranuy, Lusar, Jordania & Sanchez, 2009; Echeburúa & Corral, 2009; Kim et al., 2010; Seo, Kang & Yom, 2009; Young, 2009; Shaw & Black, 2008; Zboralski et al., 2009). Therefore, the amount of young people, who interact only through the web and the number of hours they spend in front of the computer is increasing every day, subtracting the time for other activities performed previously (Cattan, White, Bond & Learmouth, 2002; Echeburúa & De Corral, 2009; Herrera et al., 2010; Livingstone & Helsper, 2010; Notley, 2009; Yang & Tung, 2007; Young 1998; Zboralski et al. 2009). "
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    DESCRIPTION: While the Internet has become a channel that promotes access to information and communication, its misuse and overuse can cause various personal and social problems. This work compares if there is an abusive Internet use among young people with and without disabilities. It also analyzes if the type of disability may influence the excessive Internet use. 230 young people participated (102 nondisabled and 128 disabled, 77 with motor disability and 51 with sensory disability). They answered the Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con Internet (CERI)[Experiences Related to the Internet questionnaire (ERIQ)], designed to measure Internet addiction. It spread through the network for 16 weeks. Analyses indicated that participants with disabilities, mainly the ones with motor disability showed an increased use and dependence on technology. Although this suggests the importance for young people with disabilities of the Internet use, it also indicates that disability, especially motor disability may be a vulnerability factor for an abusive use.
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    • "Similar studies reporting Internet addiction in children and youth have been reproduced around the world: in Korea (Cho et al. 2008; Park et al. 2008), Turkey (Ceyhan 2008), Taiwan (Lin and Yu 2008; Wan and Chiou 2006) Czechoslovakia (Simkova and Cincera 2004), Singapore (Mythily et al. 2008), Romania (Chirita et al. 2006), Italy (Coniglio et al. 2007; Ferraro et al. 2007), Iran (Ghassemzadeh et al. 2008), Greece (Siomos et al. 2008), Norway (Johansson and Gotestam 2004), and China (Song et al. 2010; Xu et al. 2008). Reported rates of addiction typically range between 2 and 20% with some reporting as high as 25% (Zboralski et al. 2009). A comparative study found significantly higher rates of Internet addiction in China than the United States, suggesting cultural factors may play a role (Jackson et al. 2008). "
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    • "Similar studies reporting Internet addiction in children and youth have been reproduced around the world: in Korea (Cho et al. 2008; Park et al. 2008), Turkey (Ceyhan 2008), Taiwan (Lin and Yu 2008; Wan and Chiou 2006) Czechoslovakia (Simkova and Cincera 2004), Singapore (Mythily et al. 2008), Romania (Chirita et al. 2006), Italy (Coniglio et al. 2007; Ferraro et al. 2007), Iran (Ghassemzadeh et al. 2008), Greece (Siomos et al. 2008), Norway (Johansson and Gotestam 2004), and China (Song et al. 2010; Xu et al. 2008). Reported rates of addiction typically range between 2 and 20% with some reporting as high as 25% (Zboralski et al. 2009). A comparative study found significantly higher rates of Internet addiction in China than the United States, suggesting cultural factors may play a role (Jackson et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Children's use of electronic media, including Internet and video gaming, has increased dramatically to an average in the general population of roughly 3 h per day. Some children cannot control their Internet use leading to increasing research on "internet addiction." The objective of this article is to review the research on ADHD as a risk factor for Internet addiction and gaming, its complications, and what research and methodological questions remain to be addressed. The literature search was done in PubMed and Psychinfo, as well as by hand. Previous research has demonstrated rates of Internet addiction as high as 25% in the population and that it is addiction more than time of use that is best correlated with psychopathology. Various studies confirm that psychiatric disorders, and ADHD in particular, are associated with overuse, with severity of ADHD specifically correlated with the amount of use. ADHD children may be vulnerable since these games operate in brief segments that are not attention demanding. In addition, they offer immediate rewards with a strong incentive to increase the reward by trying the next level. The time spent on these games may also exacerbate ADHD symptoms, if not directly then through the loss of time spent on more developmentally challenging tasks. While this is a major issue for many parents, there is no empirical research on effective treatment. Internet and off-line gaming overuse and addiction are serious concerns for ADHD youth. Research is limited by the lack of measures for youth or parents, studies of children at risk, and studies of impact and treatment.
    ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders 09/2011; 3(4):327-34. DOI:10.1007/s12402-011-0065-z
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