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Available from: Olivier Morel, Aug 20, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Le choc septique est caractérisé par une intense activation cellulaire inflammatoire, à l’origine d’un remodelage de la membrane aboutissant à la libération de microparticules. Les microparticules constituent une réserve de bioeffecteurs qui modulent de nombreuses fonctions vasculaires. Au cours du choc septique, l’interaction hôte-pathogène peut être responsable de la génération de microparticules procoagulantes d’origine endothéliale, plaquettaire, érythrocytaire ou granulocytaire, susceptibles d’activer la réponse inflammatoire, l’apoptose cellulaire et la coagulation. Certaines microparticules pourraient promouvoir l’importante dysfonction vasculaire observée au cours du choc septique, participer à la modulation du statut oxydant ou encore, participer à la génération d’un état de coagulopathie disséminée. Ce travail constitue une mise au point sur les dernières connaissances accumulées sur les propriétés biologiques des microparticules pour tenter d’identifier leur implication dans le choc septique, comme marqueur biologique ou cible thérapeutique potentielle.
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    ABSTRACT: Microparticles (MPs) are membrane fragments shed by cells activated by a variety of stimuli including serine proteases, inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and stress inducers. MPs originating from platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and erythrocytes are found in circulating blood at relative concentrations determined by the pathophysiological context. The procoagulant activity of MPs is their most characterized property as a determinant of thrombosis in various vascular and systemic diseases including myocardial infarction and diabetes. An increase in circulating MPs has also been associated with ischemic cerebrovascular accidents, transient ischemic attacks, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral malaria. Recent data indicate that besides their procoagulant components and identity antigens, MPs bear a number of bioactive effectors that can be disseminated, exchanged, and transferred via MPs cell interactions. Furthermore, as activated parenchymal cells may also shed MPs carrying identity antigens and biomolecules, MPs are now emerging as new messengers/biomarkers from a specific tissue undergoing activation or damage. Thus, detection of MPs of neurovascular origin in biological fluids such as CSF or tears, and even in circulating blood in case of blood-brain barrier leakage, would not only improve our comprehension of neurovascular pathophysiology, but may also constitute a powerful tool as a biomarker in disease prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and follow-up.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2009; 110(2):457-68. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06163.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract not part of editorial.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 10/2009; 297(6):L1033-4. DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00335.2009 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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