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Microparticles in endothelial cell and vascular homeostasis: are they really noxious?

Haematologica (Impact Factor: 5.94). 04/2009; 94(3):313-7. DOI: 10.3324/haematol.2009.003657
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating microparticles (MPs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) correlate with endothelial dysfunction and contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this context, we explored whether the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist, irbesartan, exerts a pharmacological control in the atherosclerotic process by the improvement of EPC mobilization and inhibitory effects on MP release and VEGF and SDF-1α levels in the hypertensive-hypercholesterolemic (HH) hamster model. The HH hamsters were treated with irbesartan (50mg/kg b.w/day administered by gavage) for 4 month (HHI). We analyzed MP/EPC infiltration in vascular wall before and after irbesartan administration as well as the endothelial function and expression of VEGF/SDF-1α in plasma and tissue and of molecular pathways activated by them. The results showed that treatment with irbesartan significantly increased EPC infiltration and decreased MP infiltration. The mechanisms underlying this response include the reduction/increase of a number of specific membrane receptors exposed by MPs (TF, P-Selectin, E-Selectin, PSGL-1, Rantes), respectively by EPCs (β2-Integrins, α4β1-integrin), the augmentation of endothelium-mediated vasodilation and the reduction of protein expression of VEGF/SDF-1α followed by: 1) the diminishment of pro-inflammatory endothelial cytokines: VEGFR1, VEGFR2, CXCR4, Tie2, PIGF with role in EPC homing to sites of damaged endothelium; and 2) the increase of protein expression of COX-2, PGI2 synthase molecules with role in the improvement of arterial wall vasodilatation. In conclusion, the study underlines that irbesartan administration therapeutically improves/reduces EPC, respectively MP mobilization and this action may be of salutary relevance contributing to its beneficial cardiovascular effects.
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    ABSTRACT: Microparticles (MPs) released by activated or apoptotic cells increase in number in the blood of subjects with vascular or metabolic diseases and may contribute to thrombotic complications. In this study, we investigated whether MPs promoted platelet recruitment to endothelial cells in flow conditions, and by which mechanism. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) grown in microslide perfusion chambers were exposed to MPs prepared in vitro from HUVECs, monocytes or platelets. Videomicroscopy of DIOC-labelled blood perfused at arterial rate on human umbilical vein ECs demonstrated that, irrespective of their cell origin, MPs promoted the formation of platelet strings at the surface of HUVECs. This platelet/endothelial cell interaction was dependent on von Willebrand factor (VWF) expression at the HUVEC surface and involved Glycoprotein Ib and P-selectin. Interestingly, HUVECs internalized MPs within a few hours through a process involving anionic phospholipids, lactadherin and αvβ3 integrin. This uptake generated the production of reactive oxygen species via the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system (inhibited by allopurinol and the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632) and the NADPH oxidase (inhibited by SOD). Reactive oxygen species appeared essential for VWF expression at the endothelial cell surface and subsequent platelet/endothelial cell interaction under flow. The pathophysiological relevance of this process is underlined by the fact that circulating MPs from Type I diabetic patients induced platelet/endothelial cell interaction under flow, with an intensity correlated with the severity of the vasculopathy.
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating microparticles (MPs) have been reported to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we explored the relationship between MPs procoagulant activity and characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque detected by 64-slice computed tomography angiography (CTA). In 127 consecutive patients with CAD but without acute coronary syndrome and who underwent 64-slice CTA, MPs procoagulant activity in plasma (by a thrombin generation test), soluble form of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) circulating levels (by ELISA) were measured. A quantitative volumetric analysis of the lumen and plaque burden of the vessel wall (soft and calcific components), for the three major coronary vessels, was performed. The patients were classified in three groups according to the presence of calcium volume: non-calcified plaque (NCP) group (calcium volume (%) = 0), moderate calcified plaque (MCP) group (0 < calcium volume (%) < 1), and calcified plaque (CP) group (calcium volume (%) ≥ 1). MPs procoagulant activity and CML levels were higher in MCP group than in CP or NCP group (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). MPs procoagulant activity was positively associated with CML (r = 0.317, P < 0.0001) and sLOX-1 levels (r = 0.216, P = 0.0025). MPs procoagulant activity was higher in the MCP patient group and correlated positively with sLOX-1 and CML levels, suggesting that it may characterize a state of blood vulnerability that may locally precipitate plaque instability and increase the risk of subsequent major cardiovascular events.
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