Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis
ABSTRACT In spite of the growing literature about adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of this disorder.
To estimate the prevalence of adult ADHD and to identify its demographic correlates using meta-regression analysis.
We used the MEDLINE, PsycLit and EMBASE databases as well as hand-searching to find relevant publications.
The pooled prevalence of adult ADHD was 2.5% (95% CI 2.1-3.1). Gender and mean age, interacting with each other, were significantly related to prevalence of ADHD. Meta-regression analysis indicated that the proportion of participants with ADHD decreased with age when men and women were equally represented in the sample.
Prevalence of ADHD in adults declines with age in the general population. We think, however, that the unclear validity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for this condition can lead to reduced prevalence rates by underestimation of the prevalence of adult ADHD.
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ABSTRACT: Le trouble déficit de l’attention/hyperactivité (TDA/H) est un trouble neurodéve- loppemental qui débute dans l’enfance et persiste souvent à l’âge adulte. Peu de données sont disponibles sur l’évolution du trouble avec l’âge. La possibilité de la persistance du TDA/H avec le grand âge émerge depuis quelques années avec quelques études sur la prévalence, les carac- téristiques cliniques, les comorbidités et le retentissement du TDA/H dans cette population. Les objectifs de cette revue de la littérature sont de décrire l’évolution du TDA/H avec l’âge chez l’adulte, de rapporter les résultats des premières études sur le TDA/H chez la personne âgée et discuter des possibles liens entre le TDA/H et les troubles cognitifs liés à l’âge. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and often persists into adulthood. Little is known about the course of the disorder through middle-age. The possibility of a persistence of ADHD into late adulthood has emerged over the last 5 years, with the first studies examining the prevalence, the clinical characteristics, the comorbidities and the burden of ADHD in older people. The aims of this review are to describe the effect of age on the prevalence and the symptoms of ADHD through adulthood, to report the results of the first systematic studies on ADHD in the elderly, and to discuss the possible connections between ADHD and later-life cognitive decline.NPG Neurologie - Psychiatrie - Gériatrie 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.npg.2015.04.006
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ABSTRACT: The DSM criteria for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been tested in American Psychiatric Association (APA) field trials for either DSM-IV or DSM-5. This study aimed to assess: (a) the prevalence of ADHD according to DSM-5 criteria; (b) the factor solution that provides the best fit for ADHD symptoms; (c) the symptoms with the highest predictive value for clinical impairment; and (d) the best symptomatic threshold for each ADHD dimension (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity).Psychological Medicine 06/2014; 45(2):1-13. DOI:10.1017/S0033291714001470 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant drug which acts blocking the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters and is the main drug used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children and adolescents. During puberty, changes in neurotransmitter systems (including dopaminergic system) are engaged on the release of gonadal hormones and the development of cephalic structures responsible for reproductive function. This study investigated the effects of repeated treatment with Methylphenidate during development on reproductive parameters of adult male rats. Wistar rats received MPH 2.5mg/kg, MPH 5.0mg/kg, or distilled water (gavage) from postnatal day (PND) 21 to PND 60. At PND 100, it was observed an increase in percentage of abnormal tail morphology sperm in MPH 2.5 and increase in testicular interstitial tissue volume in MPH groups as well as in the number of type A spermatogonia in MPH 5.0 group. This study demonstrated that repeated administration of Methylphenidate during periods corresponding childhood to early adulthood interfered on testicular function in rats at adult life.Physiology & Behavior 05/2014; 133. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.05.016 · 3.03 Impact Factor