Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(3), 204-211

Semmelweis University Budapest, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Balassa u. 6, Budapest H-1083, Hungary.
The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science (Impact Factor: 7.99). 04/2009; 194(3):204-11. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.048827
Source: PubMed


In spite of the growing literature about adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of this disorder.
To estimate the prevalence of adult ADHD and to identify its demographic correlates using meta-regression analysis.
We used the MEDLINE, PsycLit and EMBASE databases as well as hand-searching to find relevant publications.
The pooled prevalence of adult ADHD was 2.5% (95% CI 2.1-3.1). Gender and mean age, interacting with each other, were significantly related to prevalence of ADHD. Meta-regression analysis indicated that the proportion of participants with ADHD decreased with age when men and women were equally represented in the sample.
Prevalence of ADHD in adults declines with age in the general population. We think, however, that the unclear validity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for this condition can lead to reduced prevalence rates by underestimation of the prevalence of adult ADHD.

11 Reads
    • "This is 2–4 times higher than the estimated DSM-IV rate of ADHD in the general adult population (2.5–4.3%) (Fayyad et al., 2007; Kessler et al., 2006; Simon et al., 2009). Despite the high level of ADHD within the PD group, none of the patients had an existing current diagnosis of ADHD prior to the research study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines the rate of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated functional impairments in mentally disordered offenders (MDOs). One hundred and thirty-one male MDOs with a primary diagnosis of either severe mental illness (SMI) or personality disorder (PD) completed screening questionnaires for ADHD. If positive, they were invited for a comprehensive diagnostic interview. Additional data pertaining to self-rated impairments, and objective records of critical incidents and episodes of seclusion were obtained from patient records. Twenty-six patients screened positive (7 with SMI, 19 with PD). On further assessment, no SMI patients met criteria for ADHD. Four PD patients met criteria for persistent 'syndromatic' ADHD, whereas six met 'symptomatic' ADHD criteria, giving overall prevalence estimates of 8.6% and 12.9% respectively. Greater functional impairments were self-reported by the PD+ADHD screener positive group, compared with screener negative peers, with large effect sizes. A significant but small effect was found for spending longer in seclusion. Compared with population norms, a high rate of ADHD and associated impairments are present in MDO's with a primary diagnosis of PD. These individuals have complex needs and both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are required for their rehabilitation.
    09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.09.024
  • Source
    • " disabilities . Another factor that may have confounded the outcome is gender ; our sample has more females than males . Meta - analytic reviews indicated that the prevalence rate of ADHD is higher in males than in females , and that there are gender differences in cognitive impairments , type of ADHD - comorbidities ( Gershon and Gershon , 2002 ; Simon et al . , 2009 ) , and lateralized brain functions ( Kret and De Gelder , 2012 ; Tomasi and Volkow , 2012 ; Herlitz and Lovén , 2013 ) . Although the CAARS scores are corrected for gender and the reaction time outcomes showed no difference between males and females , the present findings need a replication examining effects of gender in a sample with "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many clinical studies reported a compromised brain lateralization in patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) without being conclusive about whether the deficit existed in the left or right hemisphere. It is well-recognized that studying ADHD dimensionally is more controlled for comorbid problems and medication effects, and provides more accurate assessment of the symptoms. Therefore, the present study applied the dimensional approach to test the relationship between brain lateralization and self-reported ADHD symptoms in a population sample. Eighty-five right-handed university students filled in the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales and performed a lateralization reaction time task. The task consists of two matching conditions: one condition requires nominal identification for letters tapping left hemisphere specialization (Letter Name-Identity condition) and the other one requires physical and visuospatial identification for shapes tapping right hemisphere specialization (Shape Physical-Identity condition). The letters or shapes to be matched are presented in left or right visual field of a fixation cross. For both task conditions, brain lateralization was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between left and right visual field. Linear regression analyses, controlled for mood symptoms reported by a depression, anxiety and stress scale, showed no relationship between the variables. These findings from a population sample of adults do not support the dimensionality of lateralized information processing deficit in ADHD symptomatology. However, group comparison analyses showed that subjects with high level of inattention symptoms close to or above the clinical cut-off had a reduced right hemisphere processing in the Shape Physical-Identity condition.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2015; 6(1418). DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01418 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The disorder results in educational, occupational and social impairments, and is often associated with other psychiatric comorbidities including significant depression, anxiety, oppositional-defiant disorder and substance use disorder (Halmøy et al., 2009). ADHD often persists into adulthood and the average prevalence is estimated to be between 2.5% and 4.9% in the adult population (Simon et al., 2009; Kessler et al., 2006). Both genetic and environmental risk factors have been proposed, but the precise etiology of ADHD is still largely unknown. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A high seroprevalence of Yo antibodies targeting cerebellar Purkinje cells was recently reported in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated the presence of 8 paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS)-associated antibodies including anti-Yo in 169 adult ADHD patients. No associations between ADHD and serum Yo antibodies or other antibodies associated with PNS were found. However, 10 out of 48 ADHD patient sera analyzed by immunofluorescence presented antibodies targeting cerebellar Purkinje cells. This reactivity probably represents the presence of low levels of antibodies against multiple cellular hitherto unknown antigens with little to no clinical significance.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.08.018 · 2.47 Impact Factor
Show more