Duration of exposure and the dose-response model of PTSD.
ABSTRACT A dose-response model underlies posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posits a relationship between event magnitude and clinical outcome. The present study examines whether one index of event magnitude--duration of exposure--contributes to risk of PTSD among female victims of sexual assault. Findings support a small but significant contribution of event duration to clinical status in the immediate aftermath of trauma but not at 3-month follow-up. The opposite pattern is obtained for subjective appraisals of threat. These findings add to a growing literature that suggests that a simple application of the dose-response model to objective event characteristics may be insufficient to explain the risk of PTSD.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Debra Kaysen, May 25, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has removed criterion A2 from the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study aimed to assess the claim that criterion A2 has low use in predicting distress, while addressing the shortcomings of previous research looking at criteria A1 and A2. Data from a longitudinal, prospective study was used, with 933 women having been assessed at four time points both prebirth and postbirth. In our sample of women, model comparisons suggest that criterion A2 should be reintroduced into the diagnostic criteria as it provides a better indicator of who goes on to have problems after giving birth than criterion A1 on its own. There is also evidence that this subjective reaction to event confrontation (A2) should include anger, shame, and guilt.Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 11/2014; 202(12). DOI:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000214 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Measures that screen for mental health in multiple traumatized populations (e.g., refugees, minorities, mental health patients, prison inmates) lack theoretical clarity that makes it difficult to develop a measure that has robust psychometrics. The paper proposes cumulative trauma disorders (CTD) model and devel-ops a scale that measures the concept and can be used as a general mental health screening tool in such populations. The measure has been tested on two studies: on representative community sample of Iraqi refugees in Michigan and on a clinic sample of refugees. Further, the measure was used on samples of Iraqi refugee and African American adolescents, West Bank and Gaza in Palestinian territories, as well as a mental health screening tool in some centers that screen refugees and torture survivors in US. The measure has been found to have high alpha and test-retest reliability, good construct, concurrent, discri-minative and predictive validity in the two main samples and on all the studies and centers that utilized it. The measure can be used as a general mental health screening tool for adult and adolescent in public health settings in different cultures, as well as for refugees, torture survivors, and highly traumatized pop-ulations.
Psychology 01/2012; 03(09):643-656. DOI:10.4236/psych.2012.39099