Changing perceptions of depression: ten-year trends from the general social survey.
ABSTRACT The authors examined the changes in beliefs about the causes of and appropriate treatments for major depression between 1996 and 2006 in a representative sampling of U.S. adults.
The authors compared data about depression from the mental health modules of the General Social Survey from 1996 (300 respondents) and 2006 (397 respondents), which measured perceptions of mental illness through use of vignettes.
There was an increase in the belief that depression is attributable to biological causes, from 77% in 1996 to 88% in 2006 (risk ratio [RR]=1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.04-1.23). Attitudes toward the treatment of depression changed as well, with 60% of respondents prioritizing a biological focus for treatment in 2006 compared with 48% in 1996 (RR=1.29, CI=1.04-1.59). These changes varied modestly by sociodemographic variables and were most pronounced among male, white, and elderly populations.
There have been changes in attitudes about the causes and treatments of depression among the American public in the past decade, with a shift toward a biological framework. A greater understanding of beliefs about depression may lead to more effective outreach and education efforts.
SourceAvailable from: Celso Iglesias-García[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe study of administrative prevalence from cumulative psychiatric case registers allows the mental health state of the studied region and the functioning of its Health Services to be estimated.Methods Data were extracted from the Asturias Cumulative Psychiatric Case Register (RACPAS) between January 1st 1998 and December 3th 2010. Characteristics of the population of the catchment area were studied, and their relationship with the administrative prevalence was analyzed.ResultsThe mean population in the studied period was 1,078,406 inhabitants. The Fritz index and the Youth and replacement indices of the active population decreased throughout the period. There was no significant increase in the prevalence of organic mental disorders, psychosis, mood disorders, and substance use in males, or behavioral disorders associated with somatic factors and physiological dysfunctions in females. There were significant gender differences in the prevalence of all disorders, except for personality disorders and organic mental disorders. Population ageing had a significant influence on the increase in the prevalence of most mental disorders in both males and females.ConclusionsA slight general increase in the administrative prevalence of mental disorders is observed during the studied period, and it was influenced by population ageing.Revista de Psiquiatría Biológica y Salud Mental 04/2013; 6(2):60–66. DOI:10.1016/j.rpsm.2012.10.002 · 0.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rationale Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depressive disorder. Exposure to chronic stress can induce depression in some vulnerable individuals, while others are resistant to depressive-like symptoms after equivalent levels of chronic stress. Objectives In female rats, individual differences in saccharin intake during chronic social defeat stress may predict subsequent cocaine self-administration, and may be attributed to alterations in mesolimbic dopamine activity. Methods Female rats were exposed to 21 days of chronic social defeat stress, during which they were evaluated for their anhedonia-like responses in the form of saccharin intake. After chronic social defeat stress, the rats were tested for behavioral cross-sensitization to cocaine and escalated cocaine self-administration in a 24-h “binge.” A separate group of animals underwent in vivo microdialysis of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell to assess dopamine (DA) in response to acute cocaine challenge. Results Cluster analysis revealed two phenotypes among the stressed female rats based on their saccharin intake while being exposed to stress, termed stress-resistant (SR, 28 %) and stress-sensitive (SS, 72 %). The amount of cocaine self-administered during the 24-h “binge” was positively correlated with preceding saccharin intake. The NAc DA response to a cocaine challenge was significantly lower in SR rats than in the SS and non-stressed control rats. No other significant differences were observed in behavioral cross-sensitization or cocaine self-administration prior to the “binge.” Conclusion Female rats showed individual differences in their anhedonic-like response to chronic social defeat stress, and these differences were reliably associated with subsequent cocaine-taking behavior.Psychopharmacology 09/2014; 232(4). DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3725-9 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated gender difference and associated disability among workers. Comprehensive investigations concerning the occurrence and consequences of depression in workplace are scarce. The study aims to evaluate how workers perceive depression in workplace, as well as to examine depression-related disabilities by gender. This is a cross-sectional web-based survey of 1000 Brazilian workers recruited from Internet sources. Participants answered an online questionnaire about depressive symptoms and related consequences in the workplace. Common symptoms attributable to depression were crying, loss of interest, and sadness. Almost one in five (18.9%) participants reported had ever been "labeled" by a health professional as suffering from depression. However, the majority of ever-depressed workers (73.5%) remained working. Performance-related impairments were reported by around 60% of depressed workers who continued working. Over half of them also complained about cognitive symptoms (concentration difficulties, indecisiveness, forgetfulness), with men reporting more cognitive dysfunctions than women. One in three workers had taken off work due to depression (mean 65.7 out-of-role days), with these periods being lengthier for men than women. Some depressive events might have occurred before working age, since the participants have self-reported the diagnosis of health professionals in past timeframe. The representativeness of recruited workers was reliant upon the availability of Internet service. The findings suggest that identification and management of symptoms of depression should be set as a priority in worker׳s health care. General and gender-related strategies to handle depression in the workplace are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2015; 176C. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.058 · 3.71 Impact Factor