TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR assay for detection and discrimination of class I, II, and III tfdA genes in soils treated with phenoxy acid herbicides.
ABSTRACT Separate quantification of three classes of tfdA genes was performed using TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR for 13 different soils subsequent to mineralization of three phenoxy acids. Class III tfdA genes were found to be involved in mineralization more often than class I and II tfdA genes.
Article: 2,4-D impact on bacterial communities, and the activity and genetic potential of 2,4-D degrading communities in soil.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The key role of telluric microorganisms in pesticide degradation is well recognized but the possible relationships between the biodiversity of soil microbial communities and their functions still remain poorly documented. If microorganisms influence the fate of pesticides, pesticide application may reciprocally affect soil microorganisms. The objective of our work was to estimate the impact of 2,4-D application on the genetic structure of bacterial communities and the 2,4-D-degrading genetic potential in relation to 2,4-D mineralization. Experiments combined isotope measurements with molecular analyses. The impact of 2,4-D on soil bacterial populations was followed with ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The 2,4-D degrading genetic potential was estimated by real-time PCR targeted on tfdA sequences coding an enzyme specifically involved in 2,4-D mineralization. The genetic structure of bacterial communities was significantly modified in response to 2,4-D application, but only during the intense phase of 2,4-D biodegradation. This effect disappeared 7 days after the treatment. The 2,4-D degrading genetic potential increased rapidly following 2,4-D application. There was a concomitant increase between the tfdA copy number and the 14C microbial biomass. The maximum of tfdA sequences corresponded to the maximum rate of 2,4-D mineralization. In this soil, 2,4-D degrading microbial communities seem preferentially to use the tfd pathway to degrade 2,4-D.FEMS Microbiology Ecology 01/2007; 58(3):529-37. · 3.41 Impact Factor
Article: Transcription dynamics of the functional tfdA gene during MCPA herbicide degradation by Cupriavidus necator AEO106 (pRO101) in agricultural soil.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A modified protocol for simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification, was used to investigate tfdA gene expression during in situ degradation of the herbicide MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy-acetic acid) in soil. tfdA encodes an alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase catalysing the first step in the degradation pathway of MCPA and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid). A linear recovery of tfdA mRNA over three orders of magnitude was shown, and the tfdA mRNA level was normalized using the tfdA mRNA/DNA ratio. The density of active cells required for tfdA mRNA detection was 10(5) cells g(-1) soil. Natural soil microcosms inoculated with Cupriavidus necator (formerly Ralstonia eutropha) AEO106 (pRO101) cells were amended with four different MCPA concentrations (2, 20, 50 and 150 mg kg(-1)). Mineralization rates were estimated by quantification of 14CO2 emission from degradation of 14C-MCPA. tfdA mRNA was detected 1 h after amendment at all four concentrations. In soils amended with 2 and 20 mg kg(-1), the mRNA/DNA ratio for tfdA demonstrated a sharp transient maximum of tfdA expression from no to full expression within 3 and 6 h respectively, followed by a decline and complete loss of expression after 19 and 43 h. A more complex pattern of tfdA expression was observed for the higher 50 and 150 mg kg(-1) amendments; this coincided with growth of C. necator AEO106 (pRO101) in the system. Repeated amendment with MCPA after 2 weeks in the 20 mg kg(-1) scenario revealed a sharp increase of tfdA mRNA, and absence of a mineralization lag phase. For all amendments, tfdA mRNA was detectable only during active mineralization, and thus revealed a direct correlation between tfdA mRNA presence and microbial degrader activity. The present study demonstrates that direct analysis of functional gene expression dynamics by quantification of mRNA can indeed be made in natural soil.Environmental Microbiology 04/2008; 10(3):571-9. · 5.84 Impact Factor
Article: Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 "2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate monooxygenase" is an alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 tfdA gene, encoding the enzyme responsible for the first step in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biodegradation, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and several enzymatic properties of the partially purified gene product were examined. Although the tfdA-encoded enzyme is typically referred to as 2,4-D monooxygenase, we were unable to observe any reductant-dependent activity. Rather, we demonstrate that this enzyme is a ferrous ion-dependent dioxygenase that uses alpha-ketoglutarate as a cosubstrate. The alpha-ketoglutarate is converted to succinate concomitant with 2,4-D conversion to 2,4-dichlorophenol. By using [1-14C]alpha-ketoglutarate, we established that carbon dioxide is the second product derived from alpha-ketoglutarate. Finally, we verified the proposal that glyoxylate is the second product derived from 2,4-D.Journal of Bacteriology 05/1993; 175(7):2083-6. · 3.83 Impact Factor