The LiaFSR system regulates the cell envelope stress response in Streptococcus mutans.

Dental Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, 124 Edward St., Toronto, Ontario M5G1G6, Canada.
Journal of bacteriology (Impact Factor: 3.94). 03/2009; 191(9):2973-84. DOI: 10.1128/JB.01563-08
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Maintaining cell envelope integrity is critical for bacterial survival, including bacteria living in a complex and dynamic environment such as the human oral cavity. Streptococcus mutans, a major etiological agent of dental caries, uses two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTSs) to monitor and respond to various environmental stimuli. Previous studies have shown that the LiaSR TCSTS in S. mutans regulates virulence traits such as acid tolerance and biofilm formation. Although not examined in streptococci, homologs of LiaSR are widely disseminated in Firmicutes and function as part of the cell envelope stress response network. We describe here liaSR and its upstream liaF gene in the cell envelope stress tolerance of S. mutans strain UA159. Transcriptional analysis established liaSR as part of the pentacistronic liaFSR-ppiB-pnpB operon. A survey of cell envelope antimicrobials revealed that mutants deficient in one or all of the liaFSR genes were susceptible to Lipid II cycle interfering antibiotics and to chemicals that perturbed the cell membrane integrity. These compounds induced liaR transcription in a concentration-dependent manner. Notably, under bacitracin stress conditions, the LiaFSR signaling system was shown to induce transcription of several genes involved in membrane protein synthesis, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, envelope chaperone/proteases, and transcriptional regulators. In the absence of an inducer such as bacitracin, LiaF repressed LiaR-regulated expression, whereas supplementing cultures with bacitracin resulted in derepression of liaSR. While LiaF appears to be an integral component of the LiaSR signaling cascade, taken collectively, we report a novel role for LiaFSR in sensing cell envelope stress and preserving envelope integrity in S. mutans.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains the leading cause of early-onset sepsis among term infants. Evasion of innate immune defenses is critical to neonatal GBS disease pathogenesis. Effectors of innate immunity, as well as numerous antibiotics, frequently target the peptidoglycan layer of the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall. The intramembrane-sensing histidine kinase (IM-HK) class of two-component regulatory systems has been identified as important to the Gram-positive response to cell wall stress. We have characterized the GBS homolog of LiaR, the response regulator component of the Lia system, to determine its role in GBS pathogenesis. LiaR is expressed as part of a three-gene operon (liaFSR) with a promoter located upstream of liaF. An LiaR deletion mutant is more susceptible to cell wall active antibiotics (vancomycin and bacitracin) as well as antimicrobial peptides (colistin, polymixin B and nisin) compared to isogenic wild-type GBS. LiaR mutant GBS are significantly attenuated in mouse models of both GBS sepsis and pneumonia. Transcriptional profiling with DNA microarray and northern blot demonstrates that LiaR regulates expression of genes involved in microbial defense against host antimicrobial systems including genes functioning in cell wall synthesis, pili formation and cell membrane modification. We conclude that the LiaFSR system, the first member of the IM-HK regulatory systems to be studied in GBS, is involved in sensing perturbations in the integrity of the cell wall and activates a transcriptional response that is important to the pathogenesis of GBS infection.
    Microbiology 05/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most members of the phylum Firmicutes harbour a two-component system (TCS), LiaSR, which is involved in the response to cell envelope stress elicited most notably by inhibitors of the lipid II cycle. In all LiaSR systems studied in detail, LiaSR-mediated signal transduction has been shown to be negatively controlled by a membrane protein, LiaF, encoded upstream of liaSR. In this study we have analysed the LiaSR orthologue of Listeria monocytogenes (LiaSR(Lm)). Whole-genome transcriptional profiling indicated that activation of LiaSR(Lm) results in a remodelling of the cell envelope via the massive upregulation of membrane-associated and extracytoplasmic proteins in the presence of inducing stimuli. As shown for other LiaSR TCSs, LiaSR(Lm) is activated by cell wall-active antibiotics. We demonstrate that the level of phosphorylated LiaR(Lm), which is required for the induction of the LiaSR(Lm) regulon, is controlled by the interplay between the histidine kinase and phosphatase activities of the bifunctional sensor protein LiaS(Lm). Our data suggest that the phosphatase activity of LiaS(Lm) is stimulated by LiaF(Lm) in the absence of cell envelope stress.
    Microbiology 10/2010; 157(Pt 2):373-86. · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To test the inhibitory growth activity of green tea catechin incorporated into dental resins compared to resins containing the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans in vitro. Material and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) and chlorhexidine (CHX) were determined according to the microdilution method. Resin discs (5 mm × 3 mm) were prepared from Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (R1) and Bis-GMA/CH3Bis-GMA (R2) comonomers (n=9) containing: a) no drug, b) EGCg, c) CHX. Two concentrations of each drug (0.5× MIC and 1× MIC) were incorporated into the resin discs. Samples were individually immersed in a bacterial culture and incubated for 24 h at 37°C under constant agitation. Cell viability was assessed by counting the number of colonies on replica agar plates. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Student t-tests (α=0.05). Results: Both resins containing EGCg and CHX showed a significant inhibition of bacterial growth at both concentrations tested (p<0.05). A significantly higher inhibition was observed in response to resins containing CHX at 0.5× MIC and 1× MIC, and EGCg at 1× MIC when compared to EGCg at 0.5× MIC. Also, EGCg at 0.5× MIC in R1 had a significantly higher growth inhibition than in R2. Conclusions: Both EGCg and CHX retained their antibacterial activity when incorporated into the resin matrix. EGCg at 1× MIC in R1 and R2 resins significantly reduced S. mutans survival at a level similar to CHX. The data generated from this study will provide advances in the field of bioactive dental materials with the potential of improving the lifespan of resin-based restorations.
    Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 01/2013; 21(2). · 0.39 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Aug 14, 2014