Effect of magnetite nanoparticle agglomerates on ultrasound induced inertial cavitation.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Ultrasound in medicine & biology (Impact Factor: 2.46). 03/2009; 35(6):1010-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2008.12.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) induced inertial cavitation has been shown to improve release and cellular uptake of drugs. The effects of magnetite nanoparticle agglomerates (290+/-10nm diameter), silica coated magnetite nanoparticle agglomerates (320+/-10nm diameter) and silica particles (320+/-10nm diameter) suspended in MilliQ water on the degree of inertial cavitation due to HIFU were investigated. The HIFU transducer was operated at a frequency of 1.1 MHz, 1.67 kHz pulse repetition frequency, with applied duty cycles (DC) between 0% and 5% and different peak negative focal pressures (PNFPs) applied up to 7.2 MPa. The inertial cavitation dose (ICD: time averaged root-mean-squared broadband noise amplitude in the frequency domain) was measured in the presence and absence of nanoparticles when subjected to HIFU. Magnetite nanoparticle agglomerates caused a significant increase in the ICD above 2.7 MPa PNFP compared with MilliQ water, silica coated magnetite agglomerates and silica particles. With the dramatic increase in ICD on introduction of these magnetite agglomerates, this technique could provide a method of HIFU triggered drug delivery by enhancing inertial cavitation. The superparamagnetic properties of these particles offer the possibility of magnetic targeting to the site of disease.