ChemInform Abstract: Review of the Technological Approaches for Grey Water Treatment and Reuses

Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Water Resources and Water Supply, Schwarzenbergstr. 95 E, D-21073 Hamburg, Germany.
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 4.1). 03/2009; 407(11):3439-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.02.004
Source: PubMed


Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen and phosphors. The kitchen grey water has a balanced COD: N: P ratio. The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water. The combination of aerobic biological process with physical filtration and disinfection is considered to be the most economical and feasible solution for grey water recycling. The MBR appears to be a very attractive solution in collective urban residential buildings.

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    • "However many of the high technology wastewater treatment systems are not suitable for developing countries since they require high initial investment, consistent power supply and skilled labor for operation and maintenance [9]. On the other hand, constructed wetlands, which depend on natural processes for pollutant removal have been considered as a promising environment friendly option and cost effective technology for greywater treatment and reuse [10]. The treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is supposed to be higher in tropical countries due to the warm temperature and associated higher rate of microbial activities and plant growth. "
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    ABSTRACT: The scarcity of freshwater has emerged as one of the most pressing problems of the 21st century. This problem could be addressed partially by collection, treatment and reuse of greywater. In this context, constructed wetlands (CWs) become attractive due to their simple mode of operation, effectiveness in treatment and applicability at small/single household levels as well as in community levels. Hence the present study investigates the treatment of greywater in a laboratory scale horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetland planted with Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv. – a common landscape plant. The experiment was conducted for a period of 50 days with change in wastewater every 10 days (1 run). During each run the wastewater was circulated using a peristaltic pump at an HRT of 7.8 h. The results show that CWs planted with A. compressus performed well in the treatment of greywater than the unplanted control with an average removal of 93% turbidity, 95% COD, 98% NO3−–N, 67% PO43−–P, and 95% of anionic surfactants. The plant also survived well with increase in biomass and number during the experiment and proved to be an efficient bioagent suitable for the treatment of greywater in CWs. The study further suggests that the use of commercially valuable ornamental plants in the CWs as bioagents will improve the aesthetic beauty, public acceptance and help to generate revenue apart from the major benefit of wastewater treatment.
    Journal of Water Process Engineering 09/2015; 7:153-160. DOI:10.1016/j.jwpe.2015.06.004
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    • "Abdel-Kader (2013); Tandlich et al. (2009); Pidou et al. (2008). Fig. 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the performance of a new treatment method for greywater called the Drawer Compacted Sand Filter (DCSF). This is a modified sand filter design in which the sand filter is broken down into several layers approximately 10 cm high, each of which is placed in a movable drawer that is stacked vertically, with each drawer separated by 10 cm of space. This treatment unit is seeking to overcome the problems commonly found in traditional sand filter designs, such as clogging, emission of bad odours and need for a large land area to house the filter. Nine pilot DCSF units were operated at different locations in Jordan during the period of 2011-2013. Composite water samples from the inlet and outlets of the DCSF over a period of 18 months were taken periodically and tested for BOD5, COD, TSS, pH, EC and E.coli. A socio-economic study was conducted to evaluate the validity and feasibility of the DCSF. The results showed that DCSF removed 78-96% of BOD5 and COD and 69-98% of TSS. E.coli removal was various across the DCSF units, ranging from 1 log to 6 logs. The focus group discussion and the analysis of economic benefits showed that DCSF unit was acceptable and feasible treatment method for greywater with minimal maintenance requirements.
    Ecological Engineering 08/2015; 81:525-533. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.04.042 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    • "biological treatment , sand filtration , and membrane filtration ( Casanova et al . 2001a ; Friedler et al . 2006 ; Pidou et al . 2007 ) . The provision of a detailed review of graywater treatment options is beyond the scope of this article , however , interested readers are referred to work by Pidou et al . ( 2007 ) , Pidou et al . ( 2008 ) , and Li et al . ( 2009 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: The demand for potable water is rising rapidly due to an ever-increasing population, economic activities, and dwindling water supplies. To provide adequate water supplies in the future, understanding the issues and challenges in the reuse of water and developing appropriate strategies for reuse will be critical. One way to augment water supplies for residential use is to reuse graywater – the wastewater from kitchens, bathrooms, and laundries. In this article, we critically review the evolution of water reuse, the definition of graywater, graywater reuse practices, volumes and flow in different situations, and graywater characteristics. We then examine the issues associated with different graywater treatment methods and how using graywater for irrigation around homes affects soil quality and plant growth. The study concludes that graywater treatment costs, human health risks, and its effect on soil quality are some of the challenges that need to be addressed in the future for widespread and sustainable reuse of graywater for irrigation around homes.
    06/2015; DOI:10.1080/10042857.2015.1059790
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