Fadini GP, Rigato M, Tiengo A, et al. Characteristics and mortality of type 2 diabetic patients hospitalized for severe iatrogenic hypoglycemia
ABSTRACT Severe hypoglycemia can be dramatic in diabetic patients, but its long-term outcome is unknown. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients hospitalized for iatrogenic hypoglycemia, and find predictors of long-term mortality, with a special regard to anti-hyperglycemic regimens.
We retrospectively analyzed 126 episodes of severe hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. We collected data on the event (coma, pre-hospital fall, glucose level, duration of hypoglycemia), concomitant risk factors, diabetic complications and chronic comorbidities. We divided patients according to the use of insulin or oral agents (OHAs). In-hospital outcomes were acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and duration of hospitalization. We finally assessed long-term mortality.
Hypoglycemia due to OHA was associated with higher prevalence of coma and longer duration than hypoglycemia due to insulin. OHA use was also associated with a longer hospital stay, but no increase in the incidence of ACS. Overall mortality after a 2-year median follow-up was 42.1%. Despite the apparent worse presentation of hypoglycemic episodes associated with OHA use, this did not lead to an increased long-term mortality.
Severe iatrogenic hypoglycemia in OHA-treated patients has a worse presentation, but is not associated with a higher long-term mortality than in insulin-treated patients.
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ABSTRACT: In diabetes, endothelial damage promotes macroangiopathy and endothelial regeneration is impaired, owing to reduced endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Given that insulin influences endothelial biology, we compared the effects of add-on basal insulin analogues on endothelial damage and regeneration in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This was a 6-month randomized crossover trial comparing add-on insulin detemir versus glargine in poorly controlled T2D with macroangiopathy. At baseline, crossover (3 months) and study end (6 months), we measured HbA1c, EPCs, circulating endothelial cells (CECs), VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin. Body weight and hypoglycaemic episodes were also recorded. Forty-two patients completed the study, randomly assigned to the glargine-detemir (n = 21) or the detemir-glargine (n = 21) schedule. At crossover, EPC levels did not change compared with baseline, but significantly increased at study end. CECs decreased over time and were significantly reduced at study end. ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin were significantly reduced at crossover and further decreased at study end. No differences were seen in these effects between detemir and glargine. HbA1c showed a carryover effect and its reduction was similar with detemir and glargine in the first arm. Incidence of hypoglycaemia and weight gain was lower with detemir than with glargine in both arms. Optimized glycaemic control by add-on basal insulin improved indexes of endothelial damage and regeneration. Compared to glargine, detemir achieved similar endothelial protection with lower weight gain and less hypoglycaemia. These results might have implications for therapy of aging T2D patients with cardiovascular disease.Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 03/2011; 13(8):718-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01396.x · 5.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) is a life-threatening diabetic complication. We aimed to portrait the short and long term outcome after a HHS episode and to describe features associated with increased early mortality. We collected data from consecutive HHS cases, defined based on rigorous glucose and osmolality criteria. We retrieved anthropometric measures, history of diabetes, other cardiovascular risk factors and chronic co-morbidity. Clinical and biochemical parameters were recorded at admission, after 24h and at discharge. We assessed incidence of complications, as well as short (≤ 30 days) and long term mortality. Patients were about 80-year old. Fifty-one cases were included, characterized by severe hyperglycemia (55.5 mosm/L) and hyperosmolality (385 mosm/L). Thirty-three percent developed at least one complication. Short term mortality was 16%; lower Glasgow Coma Scale, higher plasma glucose and mild acidosis were predictive of short term mortality. The long term mortality (median follow-up 1.27 years) was not significantly different from historical mortality data after hypoglycemic coma. In this study, early mortality of HHS was 16% and some clinical features at presentation were predictive of an adverse short term outcome. Long term survival after a HHS episode did not appear to be severely impaired.Diabetes research and clinical practice 07/2011; 94(2):172-9. DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2011.06.018 · 2.54 Impact Factor
- Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques 09/2011; 5(4):357–358. DOI:10.1016/S1957-2557(11)70264-4