Article

Significance of the physiological state of fungal spores.

Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés Microbiologiques et Alimentaires, Université de Bourgogne, ENS.BANA, 21000 Dijon, France.
International journal of food microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.01). 03/2009; 134(1-2):16-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.02.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In predictive mycology, most of the studies have been concerned with the influence of some environmental factors on fungal growth and production of mycotoxins, at steady-state. However, fluctuating conditions, interactions between organisms, and the physiological state of the organisms may also exert a profound influence on fungal responses in food and in the environment. In the laboratory, fungal spores are widely used as a biological material. They are produced under optimal conditions then, partially re-hydrated for obtaining standardized spore suspensions. In real conditions, spores are produced under suboptimal conditions and can be submitted to various stresses prior to their germination. It was illustrated how the sporulation/post-sporulation conditions, the re-hydration and the age of the spores affected greatly their physiological state and consequently their resistance to heat, inhibitors and their germinability. It was hypothesised that the observed responses to environmental factors during inactivation and germination could be correlated to the intracellular water activity of the spores.

1 Bookmark
 · 
328 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molds are responsible for spoilage of bakery products during storage. A modeling approach to predict the effect of water activity (aw) and temperature on the appearance time of Aspergillus candidus was developed and validated on cakes. The gamma concept of Zwietering was adapted to model fungal growth, taking into account the impact of temperature and aw. We hypothesized that the same model could be used to calculate the time for mycelium to become visible (tv), by substituting the matrix parameter by tv. Cardinal values of A. candidus were determined on potato dextrose agar, and predicted tv were further validated by challenge-tests run on 51 pastries. Taking into account the aw dynamics recorded in pastries during reasonable conditions of storage, high correlation was shown between predicted and observed tv when the aw at equilibrium (after 14 days of storage) was used for modeling (Af = 1.072, Bf = 0.979). Validation studies on industrial cakes confirmed the experimental results and demonstrated the suitability of the model to predict tv in food as a function of aw and temperature.
    Food Microbiology 12/2013; 36(2):254-9. · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the environment, fungal conidia are subject to transient conditions. In particular, temperature is varying according to day/night periods. All predictive models for germination assume that fungal spores can adapt instantaneously to changes of temperature. The only study that supports this assumption (Gougouli and Koutsoumanis, 2012, Modelling germination of fungal spores at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 152: 153-161) was carried out on Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger conidia that, in most cases, already produced germ tubes. In contrast, the present study focuses on temperature shifts applied during the first stages of germination (i.e., before the apparition of the germ tubes). Firstly, germination times were determined in steady state conditions at 10, 15, 20 and 25 °C. Secondly, temperature shifts (e.g., up-shifts and down-shifts) were applied at 1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 of germination times, with 5, 10 and 15 °C magnitudes. Experiments were carried out in triplicate on Penicillium chrysogenum conidia on Potato Dextrose Agar medium according to a full factorial design. Statistical analysis of the results clearly demonstrated that the assumption of instantaneous adaptation of the conidia should be rejected. Temperature shifts during germination led to an induced lag time or an extended germination time as compared to the experiments conducted ay steady state. The induced lag time was maximized when the amplitude of the shift was equal to 10 °C. Interaction between the instant and the direction of the shift was highlighted. A negative lag time was observed for a 15 °C down-shift applied at 1/4 of the germination time. This result suggested that at optimal temperature the rate of germination decreased with time, and that the variation of this rate with time depended on temperature.
    Food microbiology. 09/2014; 42C:149-153.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus flavus is a cosmopolitan fungus able to respond to external stimuli and to shift both its trophic behaviour and the production of secondary metabolites, including that of the carcinogen aflatoxin (AF). To better understand the adaptability of this fungus, we examined genetic and phenotypic responses within the fungus when grown under four conditions that mimic different ecological niches ranging from saprophytic growth to parasitism. Global transcription changes were observed in both primary and secondary metabolism in response to these conditions, particularly in secondary metabolism where transcription of nearly half of the predicted secondary metabolite clusters changed in response to the trophic states of the fungus. The greatest transcriptional change was found between saprophytic and parasitic growth, which resulted in expression changes in over 800 genes in A. flavus. The fungus also responded to growth conditions, putatively by adaptive changes in conidia, resulting in differences in their ability to utilize carbon sources. We also examined tolerance of A. flavus to oxidative stress and found that growth and secondary metabolism were altered in a superoxide dismutase (sod) mutant and an alkyl-hydroperoxide reductase (ahp) mutant of A. flavus. Data presented in this study show a multifaceted response of A. flavus to its environment and suggest that oxidative stress and secondary metabolism are important in the ecology of this fungus, notably in its interaction with host plant and in relation to changes in its lifestyle (i.e. saprobic to pathogenic).
    PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e68735. · 3.73 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
83 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014