The effect of colorectal cancer upon host peripheral immune cell function.
ABSTRACT Colorectal cancer is immunogenic. However, it is also associated with suppression of host immunity. Identifying the mechanisms involved in immune suppression is necessary to develop future immunotherapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to assess immune cell function in colorectal cancer patients.
A total of 80 colorectal cancer patients (41 male) prior to treatment and 38 matched controls (21 male) were recruited. Venous blood samples were taken. White blood cell composition was determined using monoclonal antibodies. Levels of cytokines IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-6 were measured from the supernatants of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) following thawing and re-suspension. Peripheral blood mononuclear proliferation was measured using 3H-Thymidine.
Stage I-III cancer patients had elevated percentages of CD8 T cell (P = 0.004) whilst stage IV patients had low total lymphocyte percentages (P = 0.016). Monocyte and NKT cell percentage decreased with advanced tumour stages (P = 0.013 and P = 0.038). Patients had lower PBMC proliferation and production of the TH1 cytokines (IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) (P < 0.001) than that of the controls. IL-6 and IL-4 production were not significantly different. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha concentrations reduced with tumour vascular invasion (P = 0.011 and P = 0.019).
Colorectal cancer induces an immunological response, shifting the cytokine balance. The most profound changes are seen once disease has spread systemically.
Article: Predictive value of POSSUM and ACPGBI scoring in mortality and morbidity of colorectal resection: a case-control study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Preoperative risk prediction to assess mortality and morbidity may be helpful to surgical decision making. The aim of this study was to compare mortality and morbidity of colorectal resections performed in a tertiary referral center with mortality and morbidity as predicted with physiological and operative score for enumeration of mortality and morbidity (POSSUM), Portsmouth POSSUM (P-POSSUM), and colorectal POSSUM (CR-POSSUM). The second aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of different POSSUM scores in surgery performed for malignancy, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diverticulitis. POSSUM scoring was also evaluated in colorectal resection in acute vs. elective setting. In procedures performed for malignancy, the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) score was assessed in the same way for comparison. POSSUM, P-POSSUM, and CR-POSSUM predictor equations for mortality were applied in a retrospective case-control study to 734 patients who had undergone colorectal resection. The total group was assessed first. Second, the predictive value of outcome after surgery was assessed for malignancy (n = 386), inflammatory bowel diseases (n = 113), diverticulitis (n = 91), and other indications, e.g., trauma, endometriosis, volvulus, or ischemia (n = 144). Third, all subgroups were assessed in relation to the setting in which surgery was performed: acute or elective. In patients with malignancy, the ACPGBI score was calculated as well. In all groups, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed. POSSUM, P-POSSUM, and CR-POSSUM have a significant predictive value for outcome after colorectal surgery. Within the total population as well as in all four subgroups, there is no difference in the area under the curve between the POSSUM, P-POSSUM, and CR-POSSUM scores. In the subgroup analysis, smallest areas under the ROC curve are seen in operations performed for malignancy, which is significantly worse than for diverticulitis and in operations performed for other indications. For elective procedures, P-POSSUM and CR-POSSUM predict outcome significantly worse in patients operated for carcinoma than in patients with diverticulitis. In acute surgical interventions, CR-POSSUM predicts mortality better in diverticulitis than in patients operated for other indications. The ACPGBI score has a larger area under the curve than any of the POSSUM scores. Morbidity as predicted by POSSUM is most accurate in procedures for diverticulitis and worst when the indication is malignancy. The POSSUM scores predict outcome significantly better than can be expected by chance alone. Regarding the indication for surgery, each POSSUM score predicts outcome in patients operated for diverticulitis or other indications more accurately than for malignancy. The ACPGBI score is found to be superior to the various POSSUM scores in patients who have (elective) resection of colorectal malignancy.Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 10/2010; 15(2):294-303. · 2.83 Impact Factor