Generation of chiral phosphonium dialkyl phosphite as a highly reactive P-nucleophile: application to asymmetric hydrophosphonylation of aldehydes.
ABSTRACT The generation of chiral tetraaminophosphonium dialkyl phosphite has been detected by low-temperature NMR analysis, and its synthetic potential as a remarkably reactive P-nucleophile has been successfully demonstrated by its application to the establishment of highly efficient and enantioselective hydrophosphonylation of various aldehydes. A systematic evaluation of the organic-base-dependent generation of the requisite ion pair and its reactivity and selectivity as a P-nucleophile reveals that the structure of the cationic conjugate acid of the base is a key element both for substantial generation of phosphite anions with prominent nucleophilicity and for rigorous stereocontrol. This study provides not only experimental demonstration of the importance of the phosphite tautomer in the P-C bond formation process but also a general yet valuable framework for the molecular design of even superior chiral organic base catalysts.
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ABSTRACT: We report our results concerning the first squaramide-catalysed hydrophosphonylation of aldehydes. In all cases, the reactions proceeded smoothly and cleanly under mild reaction conditions rendering final α-hydroxy phosphonates in very good yields and high enantioselectivities. It is one of the few organocatalytic examples of this reaction using aldehydes. It is the first time that diphenylphosphite () has been successfully employed in a chiral Pudovik reaction with aldehydes, in contrast to the dialkylphosphites used in previously published procedures, extending the generality of this asymmetric methodology.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 01/2014; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mechanism and stereochemistry of the hydrophosphonylation of an α-ketoester with dimethylphosphonate (DMHP) catalyzed by a thiourea-cinchona organocatalyst have been studied by the ONIOM method. The calculations show that the catalytic cycle is a three-step process, including the deprotonation of DMHP, C-P bond formation via nucleophilic addition and proton transfer with the regeneration of the catalyst. The deprotonation of DMHP mediated by the basicity of the quinuclidine nitrogen atom is the rate-determining step for the entire reaction. The activation of the α-ketoester by the thiourea or protonated cinchona moiety of the bifunctional catalyst is comparatively investigated, and the former is energy-preferred. AIM combined with NBO analysis indicate that the multiple hydrogen bonds play essential roles in activating substrates, facilitating charge transfer and stabilizing transition states and intermediates. The stereochemistry of the reaction is controlled by the C-P bond formation step and originated from the chiral induction of the multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions. The bulkier substituent groups on the chiral scaffold of the catalyst may increase rigidity of the catalyst and the asymmetric induction to the substrates. The calculations predict that alkyl substituted α-ketoesters might also be converted to chiral α-hydroxyl phosphonates with high enantioselectivity.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 10/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A procedure that enables high yielding access to phosphonic γ-(hydroxyalkyl)butenolides with excellent regio-, diastereo- and enantiocontrol is reported. The simultaneous construction of up to two adjacent quaternary stereogenic centers by a catalytic asymmetric vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction unites biologically and medicinally relevant entities, namely α-hydroxy phosphonates and γ-(hydroxyalkyl)butenolides. This is achieved by utilizing a readily available chiral copper-sulfoximine catalyst showing a broad functional group tolerance for both the electrophilic and nucleophilic reactants. A discussion about potential factors affecting the observed level of enantioselectivity, which stems from the enantiopure sulfoximine ligand, is also included.Chemistry 01/2014; 20(6):1691-1700. · 5.93 Impact Factor