Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic disabling inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Although the causes of IBD are unknown, defects in innate and adaptive immune pathways have been identified and biological therapies that target key molecules have been designed. Infliximab, a chimeric immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor, dramatically improved treatment of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Infliximab has achieved treatment goals such as mucosal healing and decreasing the need for hospitalizations and surgeries. Although several anti-tumor necrosis factor therapies have been developed, there is a great need for drugs that target other pathways. Natalizumab, an antibody against the integrin alpha4 subunit, blocks leukocyte adhesion and has reached the clinic in the United States but has not been approved in the European Union; other anti-adhesion molecules currently are under development. Additional approaches under clinical development include therapeutics that target cytokines, such as interleukin-12/23, as well as those that block T-cell signaling. The use of recombinant human proteins, including immunoregulatory cytokines and growth factors, has not been successful so far. The efficacy of each therapy must be shown in carefully designed clinical programs. Biological therapies carry a definite safety risk, so their place in treatment algorithms must be defined carefully.
"Although the understanding of the pathogenesis in IBD is progressing, new therapeutic strategies continue to be investigated. Nutrients, capable of control the pro-inflammation, are shown to be beneficial in spontaneous and induced colitis models . For example, vitamin D provides significantly beneficial role in IBD via mediating the expressions of target genes, including pro-inflammatory cytokines –. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate serum amino acids profile in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and impacts of graded dose of arginine or glutamine supplementation on the colitis. Using DSS-induced colitis model, which is similar to human ulcerative colitis, we determined serum profile of amino acids at day 3, 7, 10 and 12 (5 days post DSS treatment). Meanwhile, effects of graded dose of arginine (0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.5%) or glutamine (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) supplementation on clinical parameters, serum amino acids, colonic tight junction proteins, colonic anti-oxidative indicators [catalase, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)], colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] in DSS-induced colitis were fully analyzed at day 7 and 12. Additionally, the activation of signal transduction pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K)/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)- myosin light chain (MLC20), were analyzed using immunoblotting. Serum amino acids analysis showed that DSS treatment changed the serum contents of amino acids, such as Trp, Glu, and Gln (P<0.05). Dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation had significant (P<0.05) influence on the clinical and biochemical parameters (T-SOD, IL-17 and TNF-α) in colitis model. These results were associated with colonic NF-κB, PI3K-Akt and MLCK signaling pathways. In conclusion, arginine or glutamine could be a potential therapy for intestinal inflammatory diseases.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e88335. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088335 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Unfortunately, while current therapies can rapidly alleviate symptoms, they do not cure IBD and are limited with improvements in mucosal inflammatory lesions and mucosal healing   . The only exception to this are biological therapies, which can robustly control mucosal inflammation and induce mucosal healing along with improvement of clinical symptoms   . However, similar to antibiotics and corticosteroids, they are associated with undesirable side effects consequent to prolonged use [14, 22–24, 28, 29]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a well-established approach to the management of Crohn's disease. Aim. To determine effects of EEN upon inflammation and gut barrier function in a colitis mouse model.
Interleukin-10-deficient mice (IL-10(-/-)) were inoculated with Helicobacter trogontum and then treated with EEN, metronidazole, hydrocortisone, or EEN and metronidazole combination. Blood and tissue were collected at 2 and 4 weeks with histology, mucosal integrity, tight junction integrity, inflammation, and H. trogontum load evaluated.
H. trogontum induced colitis in IL-10(-/-) mice with histological changes in the cecum and colon. Elevated mucosal IL-8 mRNA in infected mice was associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction indicated by decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and mRNA of tight junction proteins and increased short-circuit current, myosin light chain kinase mRNA, paracellular permeability, and tumor necrosis factor- α and myeloperoxidase plasma levels (P < 0.01 for all comparisons). EEN and metronidazole, but not hydrocortisone, treatments restored barrier function, maintained gut barrier integrity, and reversed inflammatory changes along with reduction of H. trogontum load (versus infected controls P < 0.05).
H. trogontum infection in IL-10(-/-) mice induced typhlocolitis with intestinal barrier dysfunction. EEN and metronidazole, but not hydrocortisone, modulate barrier dysfunction and reversal of inflammatory changes.
"Nowadays, biological therapies such as Anti-TNF-alpha biologic compounds (e.g. Infliximab) alone or in combination with immunosuppressives have shown great efficacy in IBD and have been considered as the gold standard in IBD therapeutic strategy . However, despite the striking effect of biological therapies, the increase of economic cost and the dependent on the medication indefinitely still bring great concern on the arrival of novel therapeutic strategies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is implicated in the etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Therapies that increase cardiovagal activity, such as Mind-Body interventions, are currently confirmed to be effective in clinical trials in IBD. However, a poor understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms limits the popularization of therapies in clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to explore the mechanisms of these therapies against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats using a chronic vagus nerve stimulation model in vivo, as well as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) by acetylcholine in vitro.
Colitis was induced in rats with rectal instillation of TNBS, and the effect of chronic VNS (0.25 mA, 20 Hz, 500 ms) on colonic inflammation was evaluated. Inflammatory responses were assessed by disease activity index (DAI), histological scores, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α and IL-6 production. The expression of Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) family members, IκB-α, and nuclear NF-κB p65 were studied by immunoblotting. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was also applied to assess the sympathetic-vagal balance. DAI, histological scores, MPO activity, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased by chronic VNS. Moreover, both VNS and acetylcholine reduced the phosphorylation of MAPKs and prevented the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Methyllycaconitine (MLA) only reversed the inhibitory effect on p-ERK and intranuclear NF-κB p65 expression by ACh in vitro, no significant change was observed in the expression of p-p38 MAPK or p-JNK by MLA.
Vagal activity modification contributes to the beneficial effects of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in IBD-related inflamed colonic mucosa based on the activation of MAPKs and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Our work may provide key pathophysiological mechanistic evidence for novel therapeutic strategies that increase the cardiovagal activity in IBD patients.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e69424. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069424 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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