Nutrigenomics Approaches to Functional Foods
ABSTRACT By definition, functional foods benefit human health beyond the effect of nutrients alone. However, few are accompanied by convincing health claims, partly because human responses are variable. Nutritional biochemistry explains why polymorphisms in genes for the absorption, circulation, or metabolism of essential nutrients, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, would affect the efficacy of that nutrient. However, functional foods often incorporate bioactive compounds, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, without considering the interaction with genetic polymorphisms. For either example there will be individuals whose genotype precludes their deriving significant benefit from an increased intake of such foods, and a small segment of the population that may be disadvantaged. Large-scale, whole-genome association studies are providing unprecedented understanding of the genetic basis of health and chronic disease. This rapidly evolving genomic science often fails to consider the interaction with environmental exposure like diet. It is important that the dietetics profession ensures rigorous nutrition science alongside genetic evaluation as part of future study design to derive informed information on gene-diet interactions that may enable clients to rationally select foods leading to optimal health or reduced risk of chronic disease.
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ABSTRACT: Phycocyanin (PC) is one of the main pigments of the algae Spirulina, which is used as a dietary supplement due to its high protein content. PC is a protein from the phycobiliprotein family characterized by its intense blue color and its structure consists of a protein and nonprotein components known as phycocyanobilin. PC scavenges reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) and prevents oxidative damage that may explain, at least in part, its beneficial effects. This review focuses on the beneficial characteristics and properties of PC emphasizing the antioxidant activity on in vitro and in vivo models. The use of PC in clinical trials is warranted.Journal of Functional Foods 11/2014; 11. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.10.011 · 4.48 Impact Factor
Chapter: DNA damage induced by dietToxic Effects of Chemicals in Food, Chemical and Consumer Product Safety, 1 edited by Grasiela Dias de Campos Severi-Aguiar, Armindo Antonio Alves, 12/2014: chapter DNA damage induced by diet: pages 43-60; Research Signpost., ISBN: 978-81-308-0551-1
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ABSTRACT: In a human intervention study, coffee combining natural green coffee bean constituents and dark roast products was identified as a genotype-dependent inducer of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, significantly affecting Nrf2 gene expression and downstream GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription. The observed transcriptional changes correlated with the presence of specific Nrf2 genotypes suggesting their influence on both Nrf2 and subsequent ARE-dependent GST1A1 and UGT1A1 transcription. While the presence of the - 653 SNP seems to be advantageous, resulting in higher Nrf2, GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription following coffee consumption, in contrast, the presence of the - 651 SNP significantly down-regulated the response to the study coffee. Furthermore, the presence of the B/B genotype in GST1A1 along with the frequency of the [TA]6/6 and [TA]7/7 polymorphisms in UGT1A1 appeared to significantly increase sensitivity toward coffee-induced gene transcription. This data suggests that when examining the role of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in the regulation of antioxidative and chemopreventive phase II efficacy, individual genotypes should be included when considering the potency of bioactive food/food constituents and their therapeutic potential.12/2014; 2:525-39. DOI:10.1016/j.mgene.2014.07.003