Icilin-induced wet-dog shakes in rats are dependent on NMDA receptor activation and nitric oxide production
ABSTRACT Icilin is a cold channel agonist that produces vigorous wet-dog shaking in rats. The shaking is accompanied by an increase in the level of extracellular glutamate in the brain. Hence, we hypothesized that icilin-induced wet-dog shakes are dependent on increased glutamatergic transmission and nitric oxide (NO) production. Rats injected with icilin (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) displayed a dose-related increase in wet-dog shakes. Pretreatment with LY 235959 (1, 2 mg/kg, i.p.), a NMDA receptor antagonist, or L-NAME (50 mg/kg, i.p.), a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, attenuated icilin-induced wet-dog shakes. The shaking was also reduced by intracerebroventricular L-NAME (1 mg/rat, i.c.v.) administration, indicating that the stimulant effect of icilin is dependent on central NO production. Pretreatment with 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX) (10, 20 mg/kg, i.p.), an AMPA receptor antagonist, or ceftriaxone (200 mg/kg, i.p. for 5 days), a beta-lactam antibiotic and glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1) activator, did not alter the incidence of icilin-induced shaking. The present data reveal that icilin produces behavioral stimulation by a mechanism requiring NMDA receptor activation and nitric oxide production and suggest that glutamate and NO signaling play important roles in cold channel pharmacology.
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ABSTRACT: The transient receptor potential (trp) gene superfamily encodes cation channels that act as multimodal sensors for a wide variety of stimuli from outside and inside the cell. Upon sensing, they transduce electrical and Ca(2+) signals via their cation channel activities. These functional features of TRP channels allow the body to react and adapt to different forms of environmental changes. Indeed, members of one class of TRP channels have emerged as sensors of gaseous messenger molecules that control various cellular processes. Nitric oxide (NO), a vasoactive gaseous molecule, regulates TRP channels directly via cysteine (Cys) S-nitrosylation or indirectly via cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent phosphorylation. Recent studies have revealed that changes in the availability of molecular oxygen (O(2)) also control the activation of TRP channels. Anoxia induced by O(2)-glucose deprivation and severe hypoxia (1% O(2)) activates TRPM7 and TRPC6, respectively, whereas TRPA1 has recently been identified as a novel sensor of hyperoxia and mild hypoxia (15% O(2)) in vagal and sensory neurons. TRPA1 also detects other gaseous molecules such as hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)). In this review, we focus on how signaling by gaseous molecules is sensed and integrated by TRP channels.Frontiers in Physiology 08/2012; 3:324. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2012.00324 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Icilin is a transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M (TRPM8) agonist that produces behavioral activation in rats and mice. Its hallmark overt pharmacological effect is wet-dog shakes (WDS) in rats. The vigorous shaking associated with icilin is dependent on NMDA receptor activation and nitric oxide production, but little else is known about the biological systems that modulate the behavioral phenomenon. The present study investigated the hypothesis that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor activation inhibits icilin-induced WDS. Rats injected with icilin (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5mg/kg, i.p.) displayed dose-related WDS that were inhibited by pretreatment with a fixed dose of clonidine (0.15 mg/kg, s.c.). Shaking behavior caused by a fixed dose (2.5mg/kg) of icilin was also inhibited in a dose-related manner by clonidine pretreatment (0.03-0.15 mg/kg, s.c.) and reduced by clonidine posttreatment (0.15 mg/kg, s.c.). Pretreatment with a peripherally restricted alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, ST91 (0.075, 0.15 mg/kg), also decreased the incidence of shaking elicited by 2.5mg/kg of icilin. Pretreatment with yohimbine (2mg/kg, i.p.) enhanced the shaking induced by a low dose of icilin (0.5mg/kg). The imidazoline site agonists, agmatine (150mg/kg, i.p.) and 2-BFI (7 mg/kg, i.p.), did not affect icilin-evoked shaking. These results suggest that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor activation inhibits shaking induced by icilin and that increases in peripheral, as well as central, alpha(2)-adrenoceptor signaling oppose the behavioral stimulant effect of icilin.Brain research 02/2011; 1384:110-7. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.02.002 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Effective relief from chronic hypersensitive pain states remains an unmet need. Here we report the discovery that the TRPM8 ion channel, co-operating with the 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) in a subset of sensory afferents, exerts an influence at the spinal cord level to suppress central hypersensitivity in pain processing throughout the central nervous system. Using cell line models, ex vivo rat neural tissue and in vivo pain models, we assessed functional Ca(2+) fluorometric responses, protein:protein interactions, immuno-localisation and reflex pain behaviours, with pharmacological and molecular interventions. We report 5-HT1BR expression in many TRPM8-containing afferents and direct interaction of these proteins in a novel multi-protein signalling complex, which includes phospholipase D1 (PLD1). We provide evidence that the 5-HT1BR activates PLD1 to subsequently activate PIP 5-kinase and generate PIP2, an allosteric enhancer of TRPM8, achieving a several-fold increase in potency of TRPM8 activation. The enhanced activation responses of synaptoneurosomes prepared from spinal cord and cortical regions of animals with a chronic inflammatory pain state are inhibited by TRPM8 activators that were applied in vivo topically to the skin, an effect potentiated by co-administered 5-HT1BR agonists and attenuated by 5-HT1BR antagonists, while 5-HT1BR agents alone had no detectable effect. Corresponding results are seen when assessing reflex behaviours in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Control experiments with alternative receptor/TRP channel combinations reveal no such synergy. Identification of this novel receptor/effector/channel complex and its impact on nociceptive processing give new insights into possible strategies for enhanced analgesia in chronic pain.Neuropharmacology 11/2013; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.11.006 · 4.82 Impact Factor