Staged angioplasty for carotid artery stenosis to prevent postoperative hyperperfusion.
ABSTRACT Hyperperfusion (HP) is a rare but potentially devastating complication after carotid revascularization. This report describes the clinical efficacy of staged angioplasty (SAP) for carotid artery stenosis to prevent HP after carotid revascularization.
Eighteen of 143 patients with high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis scheduled for angioplasty were considered at high risk of postprocedure HP based on their severely impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vasoreactivity, which were determined using single-photon emission computed tomography with acetazolamide. Nine of the high-risk patients were treated with carotid artery stenting and the other 9 were treated with SAP, which consisted of balloon angioplasty with undersized balloon catheters (Stage 1) followed by carotid artery stenting 1 to 2 months later (Stage 2).
In the regular carotid artery stenting group, 5 of 9 patients (56%) showed HP phenomenon on single-photon emission computed tomography just after stenting, and 1 patient (11%) developed status epilepticus owing to HP. In the SAP group, none of the 8 patients treated by SAP or the 1 patient who required stent placement during the first stage owing to a wall dissection developed postprocedure HP phenomenon or HP syndrome.
SAP decreased the HP phenomenon on single-photon emission computed tomography after performing these procedures in selected patients. Although additional intervention is needed, SAP is considered a relatively simple and effective method to avoid HP in patients at high risk of HP after carotid revascularization.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the preoperative measurement of acetazolamide-induced changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is performed using single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) scanning, can be used to identify patients at risk for hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). In addition, the authors investigated whether monitoring of CBF with SPECT scanning after CEA can be used to identify patients at risk for hyperperfusion syndrome. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide were measured before CEA in 51 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (> or = 70% stenosis). Cerebral blood flow was also measured immediately after CEA and on the 3rd postoperative day. Hyperperfusion (an increase in CBF of > or = 100% compared with preoperative values) was observed immediately after CEA in eight of 12 patients with reduced preoperative CVR. Reduced preoperative CVR was the only significant independent predictor of post-CEA hyperperfusion. Forty-three patients in whom hyperperfusion was not detected immediately after CEA did not exhibit hyperperfusion on the 3rd postoperative day and did not experience hyperperfusion syndrome. In two of eight patients in whom hyperperfusion occurred immediately after CEA, CBF progressively increased and hyperperfusion syndrome developed, but intracerebral hemorrhage did not occur. In the remaining six of eight patients in whom hyperperfusion was detected immediately after CEA, the CBF progressively decreased and the hyperperfusion resolved by the 3rd postoperative day. Preoperative measurement of acetazolamide-induced changes in CBF, which is performed using SPECT scanning, can be used to identify patients at risk for hyperperfusion after CEA. In addition, post-CEA monitoring of CBF performed using SPECT scanning results in the timely and reliable identification of patients at risk for hyperperfusion syndrome.Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2003; 99(3):504-10. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intracranial hemorrhage associated with cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a rare but potentially devastating complication. In the present study the authors evaluated 4494 patients with carotid artery stenosis who had undergone CEA or CAS to clarify the clinicopathological features and outcomes of those with CHS and associated intracranial hemorrhage. Patients with postoperative CHS were retrospectively selected, and clinicopathological features and outcomes were studied. Sixty-one patients with CHS (1.4%) were identified, and intracranial hemorrhage developed in 27 of them (0.6%). The onset of CHS peaked on the 6th postoperative day in those who had undergone CEA and within 12 hours in those who had undergone CAS. Results of logistic regression analysis demonstrated that poor postoperative control of blood pressure was significantly associated with the development of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with CHS after CEA (p = 0.0164). Note, however, that none of the tested variables were significantly associated with the development of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with CHS after CAS. Mortality (p = 0.0010) and morbidity (p = 0.0172) rates were significantly higher in patients with intracranial hemorrhage than in those without. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after CEA and CAS occurs with delayed classic and acute presentations, respectively. Although strict control of postoperative blood pressure prevents intracranial hemorrhage in patients with CHS after CEA, there appears to be no relationship between blood pressure control and intracranial hemorrhage in those with CHS after CAS. Finally, the prognosis of CHS in patients with associated intracerebral hemorrhage is poor.Journal of Neurosurgery 01/2008; 107(6):1130-6. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abrupt normalization of cerebral blood flow (CBF) after surgical procedures to improve excessive cerebral hypoperfusion can cause irreversible brain parenchymal damage. Such hyperperfusion, which is caused by inflow at normal blood pressure into maximally dilated fine vessels, is an important complication following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Strict control of blood pressure in the perioperative period can prevent this complication except in a few patients, who have severe cerebral hypoperfusion and poor cerebrovascular reserve due to extremely severe stenosis of the ipsilateral or the bilateral carotid arteries, for which CEA is indicated. The requirement for improved CBF and the risk of postoperative hyperperfusion conflict in the pathogenesis of these patients. We tried to prevent abrupt improvement in perfusion by attempting gradual restoration of CBF. Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis was first performed to improve the poor cerebrovascular reserve by allowing insufficient blood flow. A few weeks later, CEA was performed to completely restore CBF. This surgical approach obtained good results without postoperative problems in four patients. The indications of this surgical management and efficacy of stepwise restoration of CBF to prevent postoperative hyperperfusion depend on careful preoperative evaluation of perfusion studies.Neurologia medico-chirurgica 07/2006; 46(6):283-7; discussion 288-9. · 0.49 Impact Factor