Chickpea, Faba Bean, Lupin, Mungbean, and Pigeonpea: Potential New Crops for the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States
ABSTRACT The evaluations of chickpea, pigeonpea, and mungbean were conducted as replicated field experiments. The evaluations of faba bean and lupin germplasm were conducted by planting single row plots of each acces- sion. All field experiments were conducted at the Randolph Farm of Virginia State University which is located approximately 37° 15' N and 077° 30.8' W. CHICKPEA Cicer arietinum L., an ancient crop, was probably grown in Turkey 7400 years ago. Most chickpea world production is in India. The mature chickpea seed are used as a dry bean and green immature seed are used as a vegetable. In chickpea, two seed types exist: kabuli or garbanzo (large seeded) and desi (small seeded). Chickpea is an annual plant generally requiring a cool season. However, it can be planted in spring in Virginia. The chickpea plant is 20-100 cm tall. Chickpea has a deep tap root and is considered drought tolerant. The results of chickpea evaluations are presented in Table 1. The mean yield of desi type chickpea lines (1153 kg/ha) was significantly higher than that of kabuli type lines (719 kg/ha). However, the larger kabuli- type chickpea are known to be sold at premier prices at the green-immature stage for use as a vegetable. Re- cent research has indicated that 'Sanford' and 'Dwelly' ( kabuli type cultivars) and 'Myles' ( desi type cultivar) are adaptable and high yielding in Virginia. FABA BEAN Vicia faba L. is known to be an efficient nitrogen fixer and there is interest among farmers to grow faba bean as a vegetable crop to market the green beans in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The faba bean is generally a cool season crop but can be planted in Virginia during spring. A diverse germplasm collection of faba bean germplasm has been evaluated for production potential. This collection has included lines from ICARDA (Syria); US collection at Pullman, Washington; and lines from Dr. Al Slinkard (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada). The seedling and foliar diseases have been a major hindrance in faba bean production under Virginia conditions. Although our results with faba bean have been disappointing, two cultivars, 'Fatima' and 'Chinese', seem to have promise under Virginia conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Three legumes [field peas (P), chickpeas (CP) and faba beans (B)] at two inclusion levels [170 g kg(-1) (L) and 350 g kg(-1) (H)] were evaluated in a 13-week experiment with triplicate groups of 92.6 +/- 5.0 g gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). A control diet included wheat meal, fishmeal (FM) and a mixture of plant ingredients as protein sources. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic and processed in a twin-screw extruder. Restricted feeding was applied (15 g kg(-1) of body weight) and growth, haematology and histology parameters were evaluated. Decreased, but not significant, growth values were observed for all diets including legumes compared to the control. Poorer feed conversion ratio values were observed for both P diets and for high level B diet. Liver glycogen increased with increasing starch level, but hepatosomatic index did not differ significantly for any of the diet treatments. Histological examination of internal organs showed no pathological abnormalities that could be related to nutritional treatment. The study indicated that the tested legumes are ingredients that could be used in farmed seabream diets up to 350 g kg(-1) without negative effects replacing other carbohydrate sources and part of FM.Aquaculture Nutrition 04/2011; 17(2):e288-e296. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2095.2010.00762.x
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY In Chile there is a lack of information about the quality of commercially available rhizobia inoculants. A greenhouse trial was conducted at the Agronomy Faculty of the University of Chile to test the effectivity of three commercial inoculants of rhizobia as assessed by the growth of L. albus and L. angustifolius in two soils of Region VIII. The above ground dry matter at flowering, its total nitrogen content, the number and weight of root nodules and the number of viable rhizobia cells per gram of inoculant were determined. A completely randomized block design in a 2 x 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with 4 replicates was used; the factors were soil type at two levels (trumao and red clay), lupin species (L. albus and L. angustifolius), and inoculation which included the commercial inoculants Dipex, Nitrofix, Cerolabranza and two checks. The above ground dry matter at flowering was significatntly (p
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ABSTRACT: Forage-livestock systems in the U.S. Gulf Coast are based on perennial C-4 grasses. System productivity often is predicated on significant inputs of N fertilizer, but rapidly escalating fertilizer prices raise questions about the sustainability of these systems and provide impetus for legume research. There are few successful forage legumes in the region, suggesting that alternative species merit evaluation. The objective of this study was to determine the productivity and nutritive value in North Florida of adapted legumes whose primary use is not forage. Species tested included soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], and pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. Legumes were grown in field plots during 3 yr and sampled biweekly until the recommended maturity stage for harvest as forage. At the recommended maturity stages for harvest as forage, soybean, and pigeonpea had greater (P < 0.01) herbage mass than cowpea. Leaf-to-stem ratio decreased with maturity and was greater for cowpea than the other legumes from 10 through 14 weeks after planting (WAP). At the recommended maturity for harvest as forage, pigeonpea, soybean, and cowpea had crude protein (CP) concentrations of 121, 176, and 188 g kg(-1), respectively; neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of 695, 423, and 447 g kg(-1), respectively; and in vitro true dry matter (DM) digestibility (IVTD) of 351,729, and 689 g kg(-1), respectively. Of the three legumes studied, soybean and cowpea had the greatest potential to provide forage with the highest nutritive value for livestock in North Florida, but soybean provided greater N yield.Agronomy Journal 01/2009; 101(2):415-421. DOI:10.2134/agronj2008.0083x