[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is an independent study carried out during Oct 2012-Feb 2013, excluding the period of peer review process, started from Feb 2013 till Sep 2013.
In energy dependent economies, energy consumption is often linked with the growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP).Energy intensity, defined herewith, as the ratio of the total primary energy consumption (TPE)to the GDP, is a useful concept for understanding the relation between energy demand and economic development. The scope of this article is to assess the future primary energy consumption of Nepal, and the projection is carried out along with the formulation of simple linear logarithmic energy consumption models. This initiates with a hypothesis that energy consumption is dependent with the national macro economic parameters. To test the hypothesis, nexus between energy consumption and possible determinant variables are examined. Status of energy consumption between the period of 1996-2009, and for the same period, growth of economic parameters are assessed. Three scenarios are developed differing from each other on the basis of growth rates of economic indicators: total GDP, GDP-agriculture, GDP-trade, GDP-industry, and other variable including growth in private consumptions, population, transport vehicles numbers, prices of fossil fuels etc. Scenarios are: Business as Usual (BAU), Medium Growth Scenario (MGS) and High Growth Scenario (HGS). Energy consumption in all the sectors and for all fuel types are not statistically correlated with every economic parameters tested in the assessment. Hence, statistically correlated model are included in the prognosis of energy consumption. For example, the TPE consumption and electricity consumption, both are significantly dependent with the total GDP and population growth. Likewise,fuel wood consumption is significantly dependent with the growth in rural population and private consumptions. In BAU the estimated electricity consumption in 2030 would be 7.97 TWh, which is 3.47 times higher than that of 2009. In MGS, the total electricity consumption in 2030 is estimated to increase by a factor of 5.71 compared to 2009. Likewise, in HGS, electricity consumption would increase by 10-fold until 2030 compared to 2009, demanding installed capacity of power plant at 6600 MW, which is only from hydro-power and other centralized system.
Renewable Energy 10/2013; 63:432–444. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the influence of internal managerial patterns of heath care authorities on the decision of patients to migrate towards different health care organizations to avail treatments. The efficiency and productivity issues are analyzed, considering the (passive) migration as a proxy for the (in)efficient service availed. We follow the "vote by feet" theorization by Tiebout , assuming that citizens can choose to avail a health treatment in a public service provider different from their resident one. The choice for a center that is far from home implies a negative judgment to the alternative health care supplier that is closer to the patient. Testing Fixed Effects Panel Model on a sample of Italian health care authorities, a strong correlation is found among variables in our model and some relevant dependence is tested between patients' mobility behavior and their resident authorities' efficiency in allocating resources on the proper operating cost. Spending in the proper way on health care could bring about an enhancement of performances. Instead, wasting resources is immediately perceived by the patient, who consequently seems to move to a different health care authority.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper evaluates the effect of two policy changes on the efficiency of Italian regional governments in the provision of health care services: first a change in the electoral system; second a process of fiscal decentralization. The electoral system was changed in 1995 and replaced a pure proportional system by a majoritarian system, fostering the transition of regional governments towards a presidential regime. The process of fiscal decentralization took effect in 1998, when intergovernmental grants earmarked for the health care sector were replaced by regional taxes. The Italian context offers a unique source of data to test the predictions of recent theoretical models that support a positive relationship between government efficiency and the electoral accountability enhanced by institutions such as electoral rules and fiscal decentralization. The paper provides two main contributions: a comprehensive analysis of the two main reforms that involved Italian regional governments and the health care sector during the 1990s; the evaluation of the impact of the electoral reform in a quasi-experimental setting. The final results provide empirical evidence in line with the findings of the theoretical models.
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