Compulsory Language Educational Policies and Identity Formation
ABSTRACT Education can be at the root of the process of identity formation. Using survey data from Catalonia and the Basque Country, where in 1983 the education system became bilingual, we study how parental choices and schooling interact with each other and contribute to the development of individual identity. The difference between the reforms implemented in the two Spanish regions is that whereas in Catalonia the reform was compulsory, in the Basque Country parents could choose the language used to educate their children. Results show a significant effect of the compulsory language policy implemented in Catalonia on identity, whereas the non-compulsory language policy implemented in the Basque Country does not have any effect. (c) 2008 by the European Economic Association.
- SourceAvailable from: Oleksandr Talavera
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- "Our study is directly related to the rapidly growing strand of economics literature that analyzes languages and language policies (e.g., Wickström 2005; Ortega and Tangerås 2008; Aspachs-Bracons et al. 2008; Fidrmuc, Ginsburgh, and Weber 2009; Ginsburgh and Weber 2010). It is also related to the education literature in as much as it examines the issue of bilingualism as well as the issues of languages of instruction and testing in schools (e.g., Ovando 2003; Parker, Rubalcava, and Teruel 2005, Menken 2008; Wiley, Lee, and Rumberger 2009). "
ABSTRACT: This paper takes advantage of a recent policy experiment in Ukraine's secondary education system to study the effect of stricter requirements for proficiency in the state language on linguistic minority studentsﾒ demand for, as well as opportunities to pursue, further studies at the university level. The reform that we consider obligated all minority students, including those studying in public schools with a full cycle of education in minority languages, to take a standardized school exit test (which is also a university entry test) in Ukrainian, the state language, thus denying them previously granted access to translated tests. Using school-level data and employing the difference-in-difference estimator we find evidence that the reform resulted in a decline in the number of subjects taken by minority students at the school exit test. There was also a notable shift in the take-up of particular subjects, with fewer exams taken by minority students in more linguistically-demanding subjects such as History, Biology, and Geography, and more exams taken in foreign languages and Math. Overall, our results suggest some distortions in the accumulation of human capital by linguistic minority students induced by the language policy.Journal of Comparative Economics 01/2011; DOI:10.1016/j.jce.2015.01.006 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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- "It is worth noting that very few non-white natives report any problem with English so, as one might expect, all language problems affect only the first generation. In this context it is worth noting that there has been little or no dissent in the UK from the view that all education should be in English so bilingualism is not the issue it is in some other countries (see, for example, Aspachs-Bracons et al 2008a,b, or Angrist et al, 2008) 6 Details of the construct of this and other composite measures can be found in Appendix A. 7 Unfortunately the routing of the questions does not ask abut proficiency for those who speak English at home (and we assume they are proficient) even though there are, for example, well-known literacy problems among segments of the white native population. "
ABSTRACT: Increasing environmental performance is one of the changes involved by sustainable development and became a condition of success in economic activities. Efforts invested in this direction are explained by a number of strategic advantages – operational ecoefficiency, reputation, strategic direction, risk management, human resources management, product differentiation - , which justifies economic suboptimal functioning on short term. Governmental policies contributed to the development of these advantages, but there still remain many unclear aspects regarding the reaction pattern of enterprises. The paper aims to address this area of uncertainty by analyzing the patterns that could become internal drivers of environmental performance in trading activity. Size, profitability and efficiency in the use of resources, identified by prior research as internal drivers of environmental performance, were not confirmed by the empirical analysis performed on a sample of companies with trading activities. The impact of changes in the conditions that allow participation in public procurement bidding, the way of evaluating environmental performance are possible explanations for these inconclusive results. Future research should address the relative importance of internal and external drivers, the possibilities to express environmental performance and inter-sector comparisons.
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ABSTRACT: Many developed countries have been receiving large immigration inflows during the last decades, which has changed the distribution of cultural traits (native versus immigrant) of school-age children in these countries. Such sudden changes are likely to have an impact on segregation of students across public and private schools if cultural considerations play a role in parents' school choices. In many of these countries both the proportion of native parents who chose to send their children to private schools as well as the proportion of immigrant parents who chose public institutions increased with immigration. Spain provides a clear example of large immigration and subsequent native-flight out from public schools. Building on previous literature on school sorting and cultural transmission I construct and calibrate a model of school choice that can account for the observed sorting of students in Spain. The model economy is a single-community, multi-neighborhood general equilibrium model with overlapping generations of individuals who differ along two dimensions, income and cultural traits. Parents care about their children's future income and their acquired cultural identity. I use the model economy to study the impact of immigration on school and neighborhood segregation and to analyze policies that can affect the allocation of students across schools as well as the integration out-comes of immigrants. I find that reducing subsidies to private education as well as increasing its multi-cultural value can reduce the sorting of natives and immigrants across public and private institutions while ameliorating neighborhood segregation and improving cultural and economic integration outcomes of immigrants.