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Análisis y reflexión sobre modelos teóricos del proceso salud-enfermedad

Cadernos de Saúde Pública (Impact Factor: 0.89). 01/1992; 8(3). DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1992000300005
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    ABSTRACT: Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments.
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    ABSTRACT: Home care for the elderly has a great ally in the family caregiver, in general a spouse. However, these spouses frequently have health complaints themselves. To understand the meaning of health for elderly spouses who are caregivers, to know the changes in their health after taking this role and to learn how they take care of their own health, the authors developed an exploratory qualitative study in which elderly spouses caregivers were perso- nally interviewed. The speeches were analyzed according to the Discourse Analysis on Collective Subject. The result is that they understood health as having energy, showing no symptoms, needing no doctor, depending on no one and requiring no care. They took care of their own health through diet control, respect to routines and personal habits, performance of their daily activities, physical activities and medical control. The changes noticed after becoming caregivers were tiredness, stress, preoccu- pation, development of sym- ptoms and illnesses, increase of health risks and changes in routine and in self-esteem.
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