Real Wage Determination in Bangladesh Agriculture: An Econometric Investigation.
ABSTRACT Thsi paper develops and estimates a real wage model for the agricultural sector in Bangladesh for the period 1973:2–1985:4. The model is developed within the framework of the market theory of labour demand and labour supply. The empirical results are supportive of the market theory of wages.
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ABSTRACT: Using real household survey data from Mexico, this study evaluates 1.(a) the impact of schooling on farm earnings through the “direct” and “allocative” effects of human capital;2.(b) the household demand for children's schooling;3.(c) using macro-level data, the association between children's school-participation and some policy variables. The overall rate of return to household heads' schooling is estimated at 25%, and for wives, 19%. The allocative effect of schooling of household heads dominates over the direct effect. Mother's schooling and farm size exercise significantly positive effects on household demand for schooling; while in the macro model, policy variables, government expenditure and pupil-teacher ratio appear strong determinants of children's attainment of primary schooling.World Development 02/1997; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT This paper examines the effect of group-based credit for the poor in Bangladesh, by gender of participant, on participatinghousehold’s mix of agricultural contracts (quantities of land sharecropped and rented), and the supply of agricultural labor which takes the form of own- cultivation as opposed to agricultural wage labor. The group-based micro-credit programs examined,provide production credit for nonagricultural activities to essentially landless and assetless rural households. Landless cultivators are more likely to have their contractual choices shaped by credit market constraints than others. On a priorigrounds,it is important to distinguish credit effects by the gender of participant. Male program credit, if properly monitored, should induce men to substitute away from supplying agricultural labor and contracting for agricultural land to supplying the nonagricultural labor required by the nonagricultural self-employment activity financed by the micro-credit program. Program participation by women, who are otherwise much less involved in income-generating activities, diversifies the sources of household income not merely by the type of activity undertaken but also across individuals within the household, outcomes that permit households to choose higher return but riskier agricultural contracts. Econometric analysis of a 1991/92 household survey provides strong evidence that participation in these group-based micro-credit programs substantially alters the mix of agricultural contracts chosen by participatinghouseholds. In particular, both female and male participation induce a significant increase in own-cultivation through sharecropping, coupled with a complementary increase in male hours in field crop self-employment and a reduction in male hours in the wage agricultural labor market, consistent with its presumed effects in diversifying income and smoothing,consumption. Female,credit effects are larger than male credit effects in increasing sharecropping and in reducing male wage labor and increasing agricultural self-employment,as predicted.Bangladesh Development Studies 01/2000; 26(2).