The Measurement of Intra-Industry Trade between Unequal Partners

Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 02/1997; 133(3):554-565. DOI: 10.1007/BF02707503
Source: RePEc


Summary This note argues that the inadequacy of the GL index to correctly reflect the level of intra-industry trade in presence of
trade imbalances may partly be due to measuring intra-industry trade between countries with large differences in economic
size. Several adjustment procedures have been suggested in the literature but it is demonstrated that none of the alternative
measures seem capable of eliminating the problem. A new measure of intra-industry trade is proposed in which the bilateral
level of intra-industry trade is divided by the total number of products traded between two countries to yield an average
level of intra-industry trade per product. This measure may also be applied at industry level, and in contrast to the GL index,
it is highly correlated with the actual level of intra-industry trade.

In studies of intra-industry trade, one should cautiously interpret the GL index since it may give a false picture of the
extent and the volume of intra-industry trade. If the standard GL index is used, it is suggested that also alternative measures
of intra-industry trade are employed to complement the GL index in order to correctly observe the true extent of intra-industry

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Available from: Lars Nilsson,
    • "where the numerator is equal to that of the GHM index, while n refers to the number of product groups in total trade. Nilsson (1997) argues that his measure provides a better indication of the extent and volume of IIT than GL-type indices and is more appropriate in cross-country IIT analyses. Owing to the discussed reasons, we employ all the three methods (GHM, FF, and N) in the article for trade data coming from the Eurostat COMEXT database using the HS6 system (six-digit level). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article investigates the drivers of vertical intra-industry trade (VIIT) in Hungarian agri-food trade with the European Union (EU). It identifies three possible ways to measure intra-industry trade (IIT) flows (GHM, FF, and N methods) and defines six hypotheses to test for the drivers of VIIT with three panel data models (static, dynamic, and FEVD). The results suggest that factor endowments are negatively, while economic size is positively and significantly related to VIIT. Distance and VIIT were found to be negatively related as is commonly the case in the standard gravity model. It was also found that VIIT is greater if a New Member State (NMS) is exporting agri-food produce to an NMS, while EU accession has ambiguously influenced the share of VIIT. In general, it seems that our results are independent from model estimations and interestingly they do not differ considerably as we a priori expected. Moreover, our results seem surprisingly robust across various measurements of ITT.
    Agricultural Economics 12/2014; 46(1). DOI:10.1111/agec.12144 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, we have no theoretical a priori indication as to which measure is best. Finally, Rajan (1996) and Nilsson (1997 and 1999) argue that, in general, the degree of intraindustry trade, as measured by the GL index, is a poor indicator of the level of intra-industry trade. This also appears to be the case with the indices and shares reported in Table 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: Intra-industry trade in agri-food products between Hungary and the EU is shown to be low and dominated by vertically rather than horizontally differentiated products, suggesting higher economic adjustment costs. Following recent empirical studies, we then test econometrically for the determinants of this trade using different measures of horizontal and vertical trade, and employing an array of popular explanatory variables. Results suggest that separating the measure of intra-industry trade into vertical and horizontal provides for better estimation and supports the contention that the determinants may differ by type of trade. In the regression analysis, the level of intra-industry trade is found to serve as a better dependent variable than the degree or share of intra-industry trade.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 02/2002; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.316319
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    • "In an example of Germany ' s intra - industry trade with 20 developing countries in 1990 , Nilsson ( 1997 ) shows that the correlation coefficient between the proposed measure in ( 8 ) and the level of intra - industry trade is high ( 0 . 96 ) , revealing that intra - industry trade per product is a suit - able proxy for the level of intra - industry trade . "
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    ABSTRACT: Two-Way Trade between Unequal Partners: The EU and the Developing Countries. — This paper analyses the intra-industry trade specialization between the EU and the developing countries between 1980 and 1992. It shows that EU intra-industry trade with the developing countries has greatly increased and that the traditional measure of intra-industry trade, the Grubel-Lloyd index, is inappropriate when applied to trade between developed and developing countries. By and large, the empirical analysis confirms that intra-industry trade between the developed and the developing countries increases with average and per capita income, and with reduced differences in economic size and capital-labour ratios.
    Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 02/1999; 135(1):102-127. DOI:10.1007/BF02708161
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