Diagnostic molecular markers of six lepidopteran insect pests infesting apples in Korea
Two molecular identification techniques for differentiating six lepidopteran pests infesting apples in Korea are presented. These six species include two internal fruit feeders (Grapholita molesta and Carposina sasakii), two leaf rollers (Adoxophyes sp. and Archips breviplicanus) and two leaf miners (Phyllonorycter ringoniella and Lyonetia prunifoliella). All species occur until near harvest and reduce apple production. A 489 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in these six species. The sequence was used to select species-specific restriction enzyme sites and to design diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers, resulting in the development of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR and diagnostic PCR. These methods were reliable and rapid in the identification of these six species.
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