Low-level smoking among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers: relationships with demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and cessation.

Department of Health Disparities Research, The University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77230-1402, USA.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 2.48). 02/2009; 11(2):178-84. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntn021
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although recent research indicates that many Latino smokers are nondaily smokers or daily smokers who smoke at a low level (<or =5 cigarettes/day), almost no research has investigated the characteristics of low-level smokers because such individuals are typically excluded from clinical trial research.
The present study examined the associations of daily smoking level and demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and abstinence during a specific quit attempt among 280 Spanish-speaking Latino smokers (54% male) who participated in a clinical trial of a telephone counseling intervention. Daily smokers were classified as low-level (1-5 cigarettes/day; n = 81), light (6-10 cigarettes/day; n = 99), or moderate/heavy smokers (> or =11 cigarettes/day; n = 100). Data were collected prior to the quit attempt and at 5 and 12 weeks postquit.
Results yielded three key findings. First, smoking level was positively associated with the total score and 12 of 13 subscale scores on a comprehensive, multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence. Low-level smokers consistently reported the least dependence, and moderate/heavy smokers reported the most dependence on tobacco. Second, low-level smokers reported the least craving in pre- to postcessation longitudinal analyses. Third, despite significant differences on dependence and craving, low-level smoking was not associated with abstinence. Smoking level was not associated with demographic variables.
This is a preliminary step in understanding factors influencing tobacco dependence and smoking cessation among low-level Spanish-speaking Latino smokers, a subgroup with high prevalence in the Latino population.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research in smoking is hindered by a lack of validated measures available in languages other than English. Availability of measures in languages other than English is vital to the inclusion of diverse groups in smoking research. To help address this gap, this study attempted to validate a Spanish-language version of the brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (Brief WISDM).
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 06/2014; · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research suggests that immigrant enclaves positively influence health behaviors such as tobacco use through supportive social networks and informal social control mechanisms that promote healthy behavioral norms. Yet, the influence of social cohesion and control on tobacco use may depend on smoking-related norms, which can vary by gender. This study examines the influence of neighborhood Latino immigrant enclave status on smoking and cessation among Hispanic men and women. Data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey was combined with census data to assess the relationship between immigrant enclaves, gender, and smoking using multilevel regression. The effect of the Hispanic enclave environment on smoking differed by gender. Living in an enclave had a harmful effect on tobacco use among Hispanic men, marginally increasing the likelihood of smoking and significantly reducing cessation. This effect was independent of neighborhood socioeconomic status, nativity, and other individual demographics. Neighborhood immigrant concentration was not associated with smoking or cessation for Hispanic women. Research, interventions, and policies aimed at reducing smoking among Hispanics may need to be gender responsive to ensure effectiveness as well as health and gender equity.
    Journal of Urban Health 05/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of light smoking has increased among Latinos. The purpose of this study was to identify demographic and acculturation-related factors associated with very light smoking, defined as smoking 1-5 cigarettes per day (CPD), among Latinos in California and nationwide. Latino smokers in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) or the 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed. Logistic regression assessed factors associated with very light smoking. Among NHANES smokers, those born in Mexico or who lived fewer years in the US were more likely to be very light smokers than 6+ CPD smokers. Among CHIS smokers, those born in Mexico, in another Spanish speaking country, or who spent smaller percentages of their life in the US were more likely to be very light smokers. Findings from this study can be used to design tobacco control media campaigns that include very light smokers.
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 08/2013; · 1.16 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 23, 2014