Low-level smoking among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers: Relationships with demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and cessation

Department of Health Disparities Research, The University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77230-1402, USA.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 3.3). 02/2009; 11(2):178-84. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntn021
Source: PubMed


Although recent research indicates that many Latino smokers are nondaily smokers or daily smokers who smoke at a low level (<or =5 cigarettes/day), almost no research has investigated the characteristics of low-level smokers because such individuals are typically excluded from clinical trial research.
The present study examined the associations of daily smoking level and demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and abstinence during a specific quit attempt among 280 Spanish-speaking Latino smokers (54% male) who participated in a clinical trial of a telephone counseling intervention. Daily smokers were classified as low-level (1-5 cigarettes/day; n = 81), light (6-10 cigarettes/day; n = 99), or moderate/heavy smokers (> or =11 cigarettes/day; n = 100). Data were collected prior to the quit attempt and at 5 and 12 weeks postquit.
Results yielded three key findings. First, smoking level was positively associated with the total score and 12 of 13 subscale scores on a comprehensive, multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence. Low-level smokers consistently reported the least dependence, and moderate/heavy smokers reported the most dependence on tobacco. Second, low-level smokers reported the least craving in pre- to postcessation longitudinal analyses. Third, despite significant differences on dependence and craving, low-level smoking was not associated with abstinence. Smoking level was not associated with demographic variables.
This is a preliminary step in understanding factors influencing tobacco dependence and smoking cessation among low-level Spanish-speaking Latino smokers, a subgroup with high prevalence in the Latino population.

Download full-text


Available from: Darla Kendzor, Oct 08, 2015
1 Follower
26 Reads
    • "For example, one study indicated that heavier smokers preferred individual or group cessation interventions, whereas lighter smokers preferred more indirect approaches (e.g., intervention by video, book, mail; Owen and Davies, 1990). Other studies have reported varying barriers to quitting by smoking rate, with light smokers reporting lower cessation barriers related to tobacco dependence and cravings relative to heavier smoking counterparts (Businelle et al., 2009; Reitzel et al., 2009). These differences may help explain why light smokers may be more successful at quitting (Cohen et al., 1989; Grandes et al., 2003), despite that they are less likely to be asked about smoking or receive physician advice to arrange cessation services relative to heavier smokers (Okuyemi et al., 2001). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Cigarette smoking prevalence rates are high among homeless adults (>70%); however, little is known about concurrent tobacco or other nicotine product use (i.e., concurrent use [CU]) in this population. CU may impact smoking quit rates and confer greater risk of health problems within this vulnerable population. This study characterized CU in a sample of homeless smokers and compared cigarette-only smokers (C-OS) to concurrent users (CUs) on participant characteristics and factors known to be associated with smoking cessation. Methods: Participants were 178 adult conventional cigarette smokers from a homeless shelter in Dallas, TX. Sociodemographic characteristics, number of homelessness episodes, tobacco dependence, and items characterizing use of several tobacco/nicotine products over the last 30 days including use frequency, reasons for use, and perceived health risks were described. Sociodemographic characteristics, number of homelessness episodes, tobacco dependence, stress, readiness to quit (RTQ) smoking, and number of smoking quit attempts in the last year were compared between the C-OS and CUs groups using t tests and chi-square tests. Results: CU was prevalent (n = 91; 51.1%), and 49.5% of CUs reported the use of ≥2 products in addition to conventional cigarettes. Compared with C-OS, CUs were younger and had more homelessness episodes, higher expired breath carbon monoxide levels, and higher stress (ps < .05). Groups did not differ on sex, race, other dependence indicators, RTQ, or previous quit attempts. Conclusions: CU is common among homeless smokers. CUs and C-OS did not differ in their RTQ smoking, though greater stress among the CUs may represent a hurdle for cessation.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 09/2015; 17(9). DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntu230 · 3.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "almost uninterrupted smoking and important dependence may have made it seem impossible for them to give up smoking, thus explaining their concern for withdrawal and relapse. As illustrated in previous work, light smokers attempting to quit do experience craving and withdrawal symptoms, albeit less often than heavy smokers (Businelle, et al., 2009; Reitzel, et al., 2009). Nevertheless, research on short-term as well as long-term cessation has established that symptoms of craving decrease with time since the quit date (Schlam, Piper, Cook, Fiore, & Baker, 2012; Weinberger, Krishnan-Sarin, Mazure, & McKee, 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated perceived risks to cessation expressed by light smokers and the association with cessation outcomes at one month post-quit date. Data from adult light smokers attending French smoking cessation services nationwide between October 2007 and December 2010 were analyzed, retrospectively. In order to identify perceived risks, we performed a thematic analysis of answers to an open-ended question. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic modelling were used to assess predictors of abstinence and relapse. Eleven themes were identified, among which weight concerns were the most important for women while men cited withdrawal most often. A protective effect of NRT prescription on cessation was uncovered among men concerned about withdrawal as well as weight-concerned women. Fear of depression and need for moral support doubled the odds of relapse for women only. Considering the growing prevalence of light smokers in the general population, our findings suggest the importance of taking into account perceived risks to quitting. Without adapted treatment and counselling, they represent significant barriers to abstinence for treatment seeking light smokers.
    Preventive Medicine 06/2013; 57(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.06.020 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Queens is home to many recent immigrants; 48% of the population is foreign-born, compared to 22% of the NYC population as a whole [39]. Because previous research has documented that Nondaily smoking is common among this group, particularly among Hispanic immigrants [21, 40], increasing rates of Nondaily smoking in Queens could reflect recent immigration in that borough. It should be noted that the changes in Queens were not significant in the full multivariable model, suggesting the decline was confounded by another predictor. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Among current smokers, the proportion of Nondaily smokers is increasing. A better understanding of the characteristics and smoking behaviors of Nondaily smokers is needed. We analyzed data from the New York City (NYC) Community Health Survey to explore Nondaily smoking among NYC adults. Univariate analyses assessed changes in Nondaily smoking over time (2002-2010) and identified unique characteristics of Nondaily smokers; multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of Nondaily smoking in 2010. The proportion of smokers who engage in Nondaily smoking significantly increased between 2002 and 2010, from 31% to 36% (P = 0.05). A larger proportion of Nondaily smokers in 2010 were low income and made tax-avoidant cigarette purchases compared to 2002. Smoking behaviors significantly associated with Nondaily smoking in 2010 included smoking more than one hour after waking (AOR = 8.8, 95% CI (5.38-14.27)); buying "loosies" (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI (1.72-7.08)); attempting to quit (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI (1.36-3.96)). Nondaily smokers have changed over time and have characteristics distinct from daily smokers. Tobacco control efforts should be targeted towards "ready to quit" Nondaily smokers.
    Journal of Environmental and Public Health 05/2012; 2012(2):145861. DOI:10.1155/2012/145861
Show more