Driving under the influence of cannabis: Links with dangerous driving, psychological predictors, and accident involvement
ABSTRACT Driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) has become a growing concern. Studies investigating the impact of DUIC on traffic safety have shown evidence that, during the acute period of cannabis intoxication, cannabis diminishes driving faculties and is associated with an elevated risk of collision. However, DUIC drivers seem to exhibit a general reckless driving style that may contribute to an over-estimation of DUIC-related collisions among this group. In this study, we investigated DUIC drivers with respect to self-reported dangerous driving habits (e.g., risky driving, aggressive driving and negative emotional driving), behaviours observed in a driving simulator, psychological predictors and crash involvement. Results suggest that DUIC is associated with self-reported and observed risky driving and negative emotional driving. We also found that sensation seeking and impulsivity are independent psychological predictors of DUIC. Finally, a trend suggests that self-reported DUIC is associated with an increased risk of being involved in a car accident, after controlling for dangerous driving and demographic variables. Implications for interventions are discussed.
SourceAvailable from: Nathan Isaac Alamillo
Article: Substance Use Among Young Latino Men[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although studies suggest Latinos have elevated rates of drug-related problems, research has not focused on the way parental and peer relationships influence perceptions about alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco or how parents and peers influence drug-using behavior among young Latino men. In order to address this gap in the literature, this study uses a mixed-method approach by surveying and interviewing 10 Latino males between the ages of 18 and 25 participating in a community-based program for at-promise young men living in Santa Barbara, California. Through questionnaires and in-depth interviews, this study found that alcohol and marijuana use was prevalent among the participants, and many of them began using these drugs early in their teenage years. Preliminary results indicate that many of the participants engaged in binge drinking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Most of the participants associated with friends who used alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco regularly. Conversely, only alcohol use was common among the participants’ family members; parental communication about substance use was not common. There was an association between parental support (i.e. parental communication and family cohesion) and parental control (i.e. parental monitoring and parental permissiveness) and the participants’ alcohol and marijuana use. Another important finding was that abuse and dependence rates were high for alcohol and marijuana, but not for tobacco.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The influence of cannabis on traffic crashes is a growing concern. Experimental studies provide ample evidence of cannabis influence on psychomotor and cognitive performances. Epidemiological works describe the excess crash risk that this substance causes. Yet this psychotropic drug's influence in causing crashes is still at the center of many discussions. The present analysis exploits crash data in detail to obtain a more precise understanding of the failures that drivers are subject to when they have consumed cannabis, depending on the level of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measured in blood samples. Two groups representative of fatal crashes in France were studied: a cannabis group (n = 174) and a control group (n = 174) involving use of neither cannabis nor alcohol. Results of this analysis notably showed that cannabis consumption significantly increased the rate of generalized failures by the driver, reflecting an alteration of all sensorial, motor, and cognitive functions, specifically for high blood levels of THC (>5 ng/mL). At lower levels of intoxication, cannabis leads to a poor diagnosis of driving difficulties.Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board 12/2012; 2281(-1):43-50. DOI:10.3141/2281-06 · 0.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.