Driving under the influence of cannabis: Links with dangerous driving, psychological predictors, and accident involvement
ABSTRACT Driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) has become a growing concern. Studies investigating the impact of DUIC on traffic safety have shown evidence that, during the acute period of cannabis intoxication, cannabis diminishes driving faculties and is associated with an elevated risk of collision. However, DUIC drivers seem to exhibit a general reckless driving style that may contribute to an over-estimation of DUIC-related collisions among this group. In this study, we investigated DUIC drivers with respect to self-reported dangerous driving habits (e.g., risky driving, aggressive driving and negative emotional driving), behaviours observed in a driving simulator, psychological predictors and crash involvement. Results suggest that DUIC is associated with self-reported and observed risky driving and negative emotional driving. We also found that sensation seeking and impulsivity are independent psychological predictors of DUIC. Finally, a trend suggests that self-reported DUIC is associated with an increased risk of being involved in a car accident, after controlling for dangerous driving and demographic variables. Implications for interventions are discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: Brenton Mcnally[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Reckless driving is a major contributing factor to road morbidity and mortality. While further research into the nature and impact of reckless driving, particularly among young people, is urgently needed, the measurement of reckless driving behaviour also requires increased attention. Three major shortcomings apparent in established measures of driver behaviour are that they do not target the full range of reckless driving behaviours, they measure characteristics other than driving behaviours, and/or they fail to categorise and label reckless driver behaviour based on characteristics of the behaviours themselves. To combat these shortcomings, this paper reports the development and preliminary validation of a new measure of reckless driving behaviour for young drivers. Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported driving data revealed four, conceptually distinct categories of reckless driving behaviour: those that increase crash-risk due to (a) distractions or deficits in perception, attention or reaction time (labelled "distracted"), (b) driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol (labelled "substance-use"), (c) placing the vehicle in an unsafe environment beyond its design expectations (labelled "extreme"), and (d) speed and positioning of the vehicle relative to other vehicles and objects (labelled "positioning"). Confirmatory factor analysis of data collected from a separate, community sample confirmed this four-factor structure. Multiple regression analyses found differences in the demographic and psychological variables related to these four factors, suggesting that interventions in one reckless driving domain may not be helpful in others.Accident; analysis and prevention 05/2014; 70C:245-257. DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2014.04.014 · 1.65 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the possible relationship of serum serotonin and salivary cortisol with the sensation seeking (SS) trait. Blood and saliva samples were taken from 57 male volunteers (mean age 23±5years) to measure serum serotonin and salivary cortisol concentrations. Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V) was used to assess SS. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed that high serum serotonin levels did not correlate significantly with low SS scores (r=0.12). However, a negative correlation between SS scores and salivary cortisol levels (r=-0.34, p<0.01) was significant, suggesting that high SS scores are related to low concentrations of salivary cortisol. The negative correlation between salivary cortisol and SS is clearly compatible with the optimal level of Catecholamine system activity (CSA), component of SS theory, indicating that high sensation seekers (HSSers) tend to seek excitement and novelty to compensate for the shortage of CSA achieving optimal arousal. Further investigation is needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding the relationship of serum serotonin and SS.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 08/2011; 81(3):225-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.06.015 · 2.65 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Drunk driving is a major public health concern, but drugged driving has received little attention. This study examines drugged driving and riding with a drugged driver in a college student sample, in terms of prevalence, age-related trends, race/sex differences, overlap with drunk driving, and risk for alcohol and marijuana dependence. Students (N=1194) ages 19-22 were interviewed annually for 3 years about past-year frequency of drugged driving, riding with a drugged/drunk driver, drunk driving, access to a car, and alcohol/drug dependence. Annual follow-up rates were excellent (88-91%). Repeated measures analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations (GEE). One in six (17%(wt)) 19-year-olds with access to a car drove drugged in the past year; prevalence remained stable through age 22. Drugged driving was more prevalent among males (p<.001) and whites (p<.01). Riding with a drugged driver varied by race and sex (overall prevalence 28%(wt) at age 19), was stable from age 19 to 21, and decreased by age 22 (p<.05). Annually, half of drugged drivers also drove drunk (ranges between 47% and 60%). Both drugged and drunk driving were independently associated with increased risk for alcohol dependence, holding constant age, sex, and race. Drunk driving did not add to the risk for marijuana dependence in the context of drugged driving. The prevalence of drugged driving is similar to drunk driving among college students. Both are strongly associated with underlying alcohol and drug dependence. Prevention and treatment implications are discussed.Drug and alcohol dependence 05/2011; 118(2-3):306-12. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.04.012 · 3.28 Impact Factor