Despite being the second most common cause of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Nigeria, no study had examined the peculiarities of motorcycle crash site characteristics in Nigeria. We examined and interviewed 363 motorcycle RTI patients in three tertiary hospitals in southwest Nigeria. All the motorcycles are small with capacities between 80 and 125cm3. 68.9% of the patients sustained their injuries while working or going to work and 23.4% on their way to school. 176 (48.5%) of the crashes were with moving vehicles and in 83 (22.3%) cases, either the motorcycle or the other vehicle is moving against the traffic. 37.8% of all crashes occurred at junctions with no roundabout versus 5% at junctions with roundabout. Some risky practices of the patient included carrying more than 2 persons (15.02%), travelling without headlight at night (31.7%) and not wearing helmets (96.5%). This study showed that risky behavior among motorcycle riders, chaotic traffic and road design faults accounted for most of the motorcycle crashes. The implications for the prevention and control of motorcycle injuries were discussed.
"This is consistent with other literature in the region that shows males are at increased risk of RTI compared to females, probably as a result of greater mobility and an increased likelihood of work outside the home, but it is also consistent with data from police records from the inter-urban Yaoundé –Douala road section which show that men were more likely to be injured and killed compared to women   . More attention to RTI prevention in this group, especially with regard to motorcycle use, may have a significant impact on overall RTI morbidity and mortality  . The increased risk of death for motorcyclists was not statistically significant in this study; however, this may be due to selection bias; deaths in this sample did not include those who died on-scene. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In Cameroon, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, more data on RTI patterns and outcomes are needed to improve treatment and prevention. This study analyzes RTIs seen in the emergency room of the busiest trauma center in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
A prospective injury surveillance study was conducted in the emergency room of the Central Hospital of Yaoundé from April 15 to October 15, 2009. RTI patterns and relationships among demographic variables, road collision characteristics, injury severity, and outcomes were identified.
A total of 1,686 RTI victims were enrolled. The mean age was 31 years, and 73% percent were male. Eighty-eight percent of road collisions occurred on paved roads. The most common user categories were ‘pedestrian’ (34%) and ‘motorcyclist’ (29%). Pedestrians were more likely to be female (p < 0.001), while motorcyclists were more likely to be male (p < 0.001). Injuries most commonly involved the pelvis and extremities (43%). Motorcyclists were more likely than other road users to have serious injuries (RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.68). RTI victims of lower economic status were more likely to die than those of higher economic status.
Vulnerable road users represent the majority of RTI victims in this surveillance study. The burden of RTI on hospitals in Cameroon is high and likely to increase. Data on RTI victims who present to trauma centers in low- and middle-income countries are essential to improving treatment and prevention.
"Along with this growing motorization levels, the ownership and use of motorcycles and other two-wheelers is increasing in many countries and relatively high in most lowincome and middle-income countries. Motorcycles account for 95% of vehicles in Vietnam (Hung et al., 2006), 67% of vehicles in Taiwan (Chang and Yeh, 2007), 63% and 69%, respectively, of all motor vehicles in China and India (Khan et al., 2008) and 52% in Nigeria (Oluwadiya et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ(2)(1)=49.526; p<0.001). The study concluded that despite the existence of a national helmet legislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa.
"These motorcycle crash related factors have been analyzed per country using a diverse array of models ranging from simple statistics (Oluwadiya et al., 2009; Daniallo and Gabler, 2011) to complex methods including ordered probit model (Quddus et al., 2002), ordered logit model (Rifaat et al., 2011), nested logit model and multinomial logit (Savolainen and Mannering, 2007), and mixed logit model (Pai et al., 2009). While scholars in many countries like the USA (e.g., Savolainen and Mannering, 2007; Daniallo and Gabler, 2011; Rifaat et al., 2011), the UK (e.g., Wyatt et al., 1999; Pai, 2009), Nigeria (e.g., Oluwadiya et al., 2009), Thailand (e.g., Kasantikul et al., 2005), and Taiwan (e.g., Lin et al., 2003a, 2003b) have tried to identify the impact of multifarious factors on motorcycle crashes and propose policies and legal regulations to minimize motorcycle crashes and/or the degree of severity, there has been little research on motorcycle crashes in South Korea. Additionally, there was no previous study focused Table 1 Variables of dataset. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In addition, the fatality rate for motorcycle crashes is about 12% of the fatality rate for road traffic crashes, which is considered to be high, although motorcycle crashes account for only 5% of road traffic crashes in South Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes that have occurred during delivery. To examine the risk of different injury levels sustained under all crash types of vehicle-to-motorcycle, this study applied an ordered probit model. Based on the results, this study proposes policy implications to reduce the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes during delivery.
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