Selenium and vitamin E: interesting biology and dashed hope.
Affiliations of author: Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Center for Clinical & Translational Research, and Department of Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment (Impact Factor: 14.07). 03/2009; 101(5):283-5. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djp009
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. However, African American/Black men are 60 % more likely to be diagnosed with and 2.4 times more likely to die from prostate cancer, compared to Non-Hispanic White men. Despite the increased burden of this malignancy, no evidence-based recommendation regarding prostate cancer screening exists for the high-risk population. Moreover, in addition to screening and detection, African American men may constitute a prime population for chemoprevention. Early detection and chemoprevention may thus represent an integral part of prostate cancer control in this population. Importantly, recent research has elucidated biological differences in the prostate tumors of African American compared to European American men. The latter may enable a more favorable response in African American men to specific chemopreventive agents that target relevant signal transduction pathways. Based on this evolving evidence, the aims of this review are threefold. First, we aim to summarize the biological differences that were reported in the prostate tumors of African American and European American men. Second, we will review the single- and multi-target chemopreventive agents placing specific emphasis on the pathways implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. And lastly, we will discuss the most promising nutraceutical chemopreventive compounds. Our review underscores the promise of chemoprevention in prostate cancer control, as well as provides justification for further investment in this filed to ultimately reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population of African American men.Cancer Causes and Control 06/2013; 24(8). DOI:10.1007/s10552-013-0241-x · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NKX3.1 is an androgen-regulated prostate tumor suppressor protein. We previously found that antioxidant administration (N-acetylcysteine) in the Nkx3.1 knock-out mouse model promoted prostate epithelial proliferation, suggesting that NKX3.1 activity modifies the effect of antioxidant administration on prostate carcinogenesis. Interestingly, administration of the antioxidant vitamin E significantly increased prostate cancer risk in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), suggesting our animal experiments may be relevant to humans. To determine whether NKX3.1 played a role in increased human prostate cancer risk associated with antioxidant administration in SELECT, we investigated the joint risk of antioxidant administration and NKX3.1 genotypes previously found to be associated with decreased NKX3.1 mRNA expression (rs11781886) or DNA-binding activity in vitro (rs2228013) in the SELECT biomarker case-cohort sub-study (1,866 cases; 3135 non-cases). Multivariable COX regression models were developed to determine the joint association of NKX3.1 genotypes with administration of vitamin E, selenium, or the combination, compared to placebo. The CC genotype at rs11781886 combined with selenium administration was associated with increased overall prostate cancer risk (HR 1.676, 95% CI 1.011-2.777, p=0.045) and low grade prostate cancer risk (HR 1.811, 95% CI 1.016-3.228, p=0.0441). Similarly, the rs11781886 minor allele (CC+CT) combined with vitamin E administration was significantly associated with increased prostate cancer risk (HR 1.450, 95% CI 1.117-1.882, p=0.0052). Our results indicate that variation in NKX3.1 expression combined with selenium or vitamin E treatment modifies the risk of prostate cancer. Genetic background may modulate the effects of antioxidant supplementation thought to act as chemoprevention agents.Cancer Prevention Research 06/2014; 7(9). DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0075 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Multiple studies show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Previously, we reported an induction of Spermidine/Spermine N1-Acetyl Transferase (SSAT) by androgen-activated androgen receptor (AR)-JunD protein complex that leads to over-production of ROS in PCa cells. In our current research, we identify small molecules that specifically block AR-JunD in this ROS-generating metabolic pathway.METHODSA high throughput assay based on Gaussia Luciferase reconstitution was used to identify inhibitors of the AR-JunD interaction. Selected hits were further screened using a fluorescence polarization competitor assay to eliminate those that bind to the AR Ligand Binding Domain (LBD), in order to identify molecules that specifically target events downstream to androgen activation of AR. Eleven molecules were selected for studies on their efficacy against ROS generation and growth of cultured human PCa cells by DCFH dye-oxidation assay and DNA fluorescence assay, respectively. In situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA), SSAT promoter-luciferase reporter assay, and western blotting of apoptosis and cell cycle markers were used to study mechanism of action of the lead compound.RESULTSSelected lead compound GWARJD10 with EC50 10 μM against ROS production was shown to block AR-JunD interaction in situ as well as block androgen-induced SSAT gene expression at IC50 5 μM. This compound had no effect on apoptosis markers, but reduced cyclin D1 protein level.CONCLUSIONS Inhibitor of AR-JunD interaction, GWARJD10 shows promise for prevention of progression of PCa at an early stage of the disease by blocking growth and ROS production. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Prostate 05/2014; 74(7). DOI:10.1002/pros.22800 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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