Control of HIF-1alpha expression by eIF2 alpha phosphorylation-mediated translational repression.
ABSTRACT Hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) plays a central role in regulating tumor angiogenesis via its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transcription, and its expression is regulated through proteasome-mediated degradation. Paradoxically, previous studies have shown that proteasome inhibitors (PI) block tumor angiogensis by reducing VEGF expression, but the mechanisms have not been identified. Here, we report that PIs down-regulated HIF-1alpha protein levels and blocked HIF-1alpha transcriptional activity in human prostate cancer cells. PIs induced phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha), which caused general translational repression to inhibit HIF-1alpha expression. Furthermore, PIs induced HIF-1alpha accumulation in LNCaP-Pro5 cells depleted of eIF2alpha via siRNA transfection and in MEFs expressing a phosphorylation-deficient mutant form of eIF2alpha. Finally, PIs failed to induce eIF2alpha phosphorylation or translational attenuation in DU145 or 253JB-V cells, and, in these cells, PIs promoted HIF-1alpha accumulation. Our data established that PIs down-regulated HIF-1alpha expression in cells that display activation of the unfolded protein response by stimulating phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and inhibiting HIF-1alpha translation.
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ABSTRACT: Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables is often associated with a reduced risk of developing cancer, particularly breast cancer. Considering that 1 in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in the course of her lifetime, dietary manipulation could have a major impact on the incidence of breast cancer. We report here that fresh extracts of garlic (not boiled) arrested the growth and altered the morphology of MCF7 breast cancer cells. Deregulated levels of E-cadherin, cytokeratin8/18, and β-catenin correlated with the altered phenotype. We propose that early down-regulation of cyclin D1, reduced phosphorylation of ERK1, and increased phosphorylation of eIF2-α triggered the phenotypical changes. Reduced expression of hsp27 and sam68 and elevated levels of Rb and p21 further contributed to the sustained growth reduction. These findings provide a better understanding of the cellular responses to dietary supplements and provide potential options to treat breast cancer.Genes & cancer 02/2012; 3(2):177-86.
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ABSTRACT: Bortezomib represents the first proteasome inhibitor (PI) with demonstrated antitumor activity in the clinical setting, particularly for treatment of hematological malignancies. At the preclinical level, its action is shown to be mediated by induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in many tumor types, including androgen-dependent (AD) and androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is directly involved in tumor growth, is one of the most studied and promising molecular targets for anti-cancer therapy and is often overexpressed in PCa. Bortezomib has been reported to impair tumor growth by also inhibiting HIF-1α. In this study, we investigated the effect of bortezomib on the expression, activity and localization of HIF-1α in LNCaP (AD) and PC3 (AI) PCa cells. First, we show that hypoxic upregulation of HIF-1α protein levels and activity involves both the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and p44/42 MAPK pathways. Second, bortezomib inhibits expression of HIF-1α protein under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, represses HIF-1 transcriptional activity and attenuates the release of vascular endothelial growth factor. These effects correlate with the ability of bortezomib to cause dephosphorylation of phospho-Akt, phospho-p70S6K, and phospho-S6RP, thus inactivating a pathway known to be required for HIF-1α protein expression at the translational level. Furthermore, bortezomib also abrogates p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation, which results to reduced nuclear translocation of HIF-1α. Taken together, these results suggest that bortezomib inhibits HIF-1α protein synthesis and its nuclear targeting through suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathways, respectively, in both AD and AI PCa cells.Journal of Molecular Medicine 09/2011; 90(1):45-54. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Development of a fertilized human egg into an average sized adult requires about 29 trillion cell divisions, thereby producing enough DNA to stretch to the Sun and back 200 times (DePamphilis and Bell, 2011)! Even more amazing is the fact that throughout these mitotic cell cycles, the human genome is duplicated once and only once each time a cell divides. If a cell accidentally begins to re-replicate its nuclear DNA prior to cell division, checkpoint pathways trigger apoptosis. And yet, some cells are developmentally programmed to respond to environmental cues by switching from mitotic cell cycles to endocycles, a process in which multiple S phases occur in the absence of either mitosis or cytokinesis. Endocycles allow production of viable, differentiated, polyploid cells that no longer proliferate. What is surprising is that among the 516 (Manning et al., 2002) to 557 (BioMart web site) protein kinases encoded by the human genome, only eight regulate nuclear DNA replication directly. These are Cdk1, Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6, Cdk7, Cdc7, Checkpoint kinase-1 (Chk1), and Checkpoint kinase-2. Even more remarkable is the fact that only four of these enzymes (Cdk1, Cdk7, Cdc7, and Chk1) are essential for mammalian development. Here we describe how these protein kinases determine when DNA replication occurs during mitotic cell cycles, how mammalian cells switch from mitotic cell cycles to endocycles, and how cancer cells can be selectively targeted for destruction by inducing them to begin a second S phase before mitosis is complete.Frontiers in Physiology 01/2012; 3:368.