Control of HIF-1alpha expression by eIF2 alpha phosphorylation-mediated translational repression.
ABSTRACT Hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) plays a central role in regulating tumor angiogenesis via its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transcription, and its expression is regulated through proteasome-mediated degradation. Paradoxically, previous studies have shown that proteasome inhibitors (PI) block tumor angiogensis by reducing VEGF expression, but the mechanisms have not been identified. Here, we report that PIs down-regulated HIF-1alpha protein levels and blocked HIF-1alpha transcriptional activity in human prostate cancer cells. PIs induced phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha), which caused general translational repression to inhibit HIF-1alpha expression. Furthermore, PIs induced HIF-1alpha accumulation in LNCaP-Pro5 cells depleted of eIF2alpha via siRNA transfection and in MEFs expressing a phosphorylation-deficient mutant form of eIF2alpha. Finally, PIs failed to induce eIF2alpha phosphorylation or translational attenuation in DU145 or 253JB-V cells, and, in these cells, PIs promoted HIF-1alpha accumulation. Our data established that PIs down-regulated HIF-1alpha expression in cells that display activation of the unfolded protein response by stimulating phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and inhibiting HIF-1alpha translation.
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ABSTRACT: Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables is often associated with a reduced risk of developing cancer, particularly breast cancer. Considering that 1 in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in the course of her lifetime, dietary manipulation could have a major impact on the incidence of breast cancer. We report here that fresh extracts of garlic (not boiled) arrested the growth and altered the morphology of MCF7 breast cancer cells. Deregulated levels of E-cadherin, cytokeratin8/18, and β-catenin correlated with the altered phenotype. We propose that early down-regulation of cyclin D1, reduced phosphorylation of ERK1, and increased phosphorylation of eIF2-α triggered the phenotypical changes. Reduced expression of hsp27 and sam68 and elevated levels of Rb and p21 further contributed to the sustained growth reduction. These findings provide a better understanding of the cellular responses to dietary supplements and provide potential options to treat breast cancer.Genes & cancer 02/2012; 3(2):177-86.
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ABSTRACT: The efficacy of treatment for glioblastoma multiforme is currently limited by the development of resistance, particularly, but not exclusively, due to the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) in a significant proportion of astrocytic tumors. MGMT is post-translationally regulated by the 26S proteasome, a multi-subunit organelle responsible for degradation of misfolded cellular proteins. The boronic acid dipeptide bortezomib is the first and only proteasome inhibitor in clinical use so far, and has been reported as a strategy to restrict growth and promote apoptosis of glioblastoma cells. In this study we investigated the effect of bortezomib on MGMT expression in T98G cells, looking for an effect on the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway, which is a major player in MGMT regulation and is also under tight control by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Administration of bortezomib led to a significant reduction of T98G cell viability and induction of DNA fragmentation. These effects coincided with reduced expression of MGMT transcript levels, and a decrease in cellular amount and IκBα-mediated, proteasomal activity-dependent nuclear translocation of NFκB. In addition, bortezomib-induced phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2α) was in parallel with translational repression of MGMT. Taken together, these results suggest a novel role for bortezomib as a potent MGMT inhibitor and support its ongoing testing as a chemosensitizer in glioblastoma.Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 01/2013; · 2.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis inhibitors have been successfully used for cancer therapy in the clinic. Many marine-derived natural products and their analogues have been reported to show antiangiogenic activities. Compared with the drugs in the clinic, these agents display interesting characteristics, including diverse sources, unique chemical structures, special modes of action, and distinct activity and toxicity profiles. This review will first provide an overview of the current marine-derived angiogenesis inhibitors based on their primary targets and/or mechanisms of action. Then, the marine-derived antiangiogenic protein kinase inhibitors will be focused on. And finally, the clinical trials of the marine-derived antiangiogenic agents will be discussed, with special emphasis on their application potentials, problems and possible coping strategies in their future development as anticancer drugs.Marine Drugs 01/2013; 11(3):903-33. · 3.98 Impact Factor