Control of HIF-1 alpha Expression by eIF2 alpha Phosphorylation-Mediated Translational Repression
ABSTRACT Hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) plays a central role in regulating tumor angiogenesis via its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transcription, and its expression is regulated through proteasome-mediated degradation. Paradoxically, previous studies have shown that proteasome inhibitors (PI) block tumor angiogensis by reducing VEGF expression, but the mechanisms have not been identified. Here, we report that PIs down-regulated HIF-1alpha protein levels and blocked HIF-1alpha transcriptional activity in human prostate cancer cells. PIs induced phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha), which caused general translational repression to inhibit HIF-1alpha expression. Furthermore, PIs induced HIF-1alpha accumulation in LNCaP-Pro5 cells depleted of eIF2alpha via siRNA transfection and in MEFs expressing a phosphorylation-deficient mutant form of eIF2alpha. Finally, PIs failed to induce eIF2alpha phosphorylation or translational attenuation in DU145 or 253JB-V cells, and, in these cells, PIs promoted HIF-1alpha accumulation. Our data established that PIs down-regulated HIF-1alpha expression in cells that display activation of the unfolded protein response by stimulating phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and inhibiting HIF-1alpha translation.
SourceAvailable from: David S Hong[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose: We hypothesized that bortezomib, an agent that suppresses HIF-1α transcriptional activity, when combined with bevacizumab, would obviate the HIF-1α resistance pathway. The objectives of this phase I trial were to assess safety and biological activity of this combination. Experimental Design: Patients with advanced, refractory malignancies were eligible. Patients received bevacizumab and bortezomib (3-week cycle) with dose expansions permitted if responses were seen and for assessing correlates. Pharmacodynamic assessment included plasma VEGF, VEGFR2, 20S proteasome inhibition, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), and HIF-1α tumor expression. Results: Ninety-one patients were treated (median=6 prior treatments). The FDA-approved doses of both drugs were safely reached, and the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) is bevacizumab 15 mg/kg with bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2. Four patients attained partial response (PR) and seven patients achieved stable disease (SD) ≥6 months (Total SD≥6 months/PR=11 (12%)). The most common drug-related toxicities included thrombocytopenia (23%) and fatigue (19%). DCE-MRI analysis demonstrated no dose-dependent decreases in Ktrans although analysis was limited by small sample size (N=12). Conclusion: Combination bevacizumab and bortezomib is well-tolerated and has demonstrated clinical activity in patients with previously treated advanced malignancy. Pharmacodynamic assessment suggests that inhibition of angiogenic activity was achieved.Oncotarget 07/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is a master regulator of tumor angiogenesis being one of the major targets for cancer therapy. Previous studies have shown that Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi) block tumor angiogenesis through the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. As such, Vorinostat (Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid/SAHA) and Romidepsin, two HDACis, were recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Although HDACis have been shown to affect HIF-1α expression by modulating its interactions with the Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone axis or its acetylation status, the molecular mechanisms by which HDACis inhibit HIF-1α expression need to be further characterized. Here, we report that the FDA-approved HDACi Vorinostat/SAHA inhibits HIF-1α expression in liver cancer-derived cell lines, by a new mechanism independent of p53, prolyl-hydroxylases, autophagy and proteasome degradation. We found that SAHA or silencing of HDAC9 mechanism of action is due to inhibition of HIF-1α translation, which in turn, is mediated by the eukaryotic translation initiation factor - eIF3G. We also highlighted that HIF-1α translation is dramatically inhibited when SAHA is combined with eIF3H silencing. Taken together, we show that HDAC activity regulates HIF-1α translation, with HDACis such as SAHA representing a potential novel approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e106224. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106224 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mechanisms of hypoxia-related angiogenesis are important for uterine smooth muscle tumors. Factors that are related to angiogenesis during hypoxia include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), T-cell intracellular antigen1 (TIA1), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1). We investigated immunoreactivities of VEGF, HIF1α, TIA1, eIF2α and TSP1 using an indirect immunoperoxidase method for formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tumors that had been diagnosed as leiomyoma (LMY), cellular leiomyoma (CLM) or leiomyosarcoma (LMS). TSP1 immunoreactivity was scored as moderate, mild or minimal, while VEGF, eIF2α and TIA1 immunoreactivities were scored as mild, moderate and strong in LMY, CLM and LMS samples, respectively. HIF1α immunoreactivity was scored as mild to minimal in LMY, CLM and LMS samples, but showed no statistically significant differences among samples. Although angiogenic factors showed strong immunohistochemical staining intensity in LMS, anti-angiogenic factors showed minimal immunohistochemical intensity. There was no difference in HIF-1α immunoreactivity compared to LMY, CLM and LMS samples. We suggest that HIF1α protein synthesis could be suppressed by eIF2α and TIA1. Furthermore, VEGF could be activated by pathways such as COX2, Ras, NF-ĸB or c-myc instead of HIF1α. Angiogenesis could trigger and accelerate tumor development; therefore, anti-angiogenic therapy could be useful for treatment of tumors.