Venous thromboembolism in myelodysplastic syndrome patients receiving lenalidomide: results from postmarketing surveillance and data mining techniques.
ABSTRACT Multiple myeloma treatment with lenalidomide-based regimens is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), particularly during concomitant use with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). The risk of VTE in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients treated with lenalidomide is not well characterized and the background risk in untreated patients is not known. This study set out to determine the reporting rate of VTE in MDS patients on lenalidomide in the two years of postmarketing experience in the US, and to investigate whether there is a disproportional signal of VTE in MDS patients on lenalidomide by screening the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) safety database.
The MDS population exposed to lenalidomide was obtained from RevAssist, the company's proprietary restrictive distribution programme. VTE reports were identified from the company's postmarketing surveillance safety database. The FDA AERS database was used for disproportionality analysis, and signal scores computed using three algorithms: multi-item gamma Poisson shrinker (MGPS), proportional reporting ratio (PRR), and reporting odds ratios (ROR).
A total of 7764 MDS patients were prescribed lenalidomide during the first two years of commercial use in the US. VTE representing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism was reported in 41 patients, a reporting rate of 0.53%. The computed signal scores did not exceed the statistical threshold for identification of a significant disproportional signal for VTE in MDS reports involving use of lenalidomide without concomitant use of ESAs. However, a disproportional signal of VTE was detected in MDS reports where lenalidomide was concurrently used with ESAs.
The VTE reporting rate for MDS patients receiving lenalidomide during the first two years of postmarketing exposure was low (0.53%). Disproportionality analysis demonstrated a statistically meaningful association of VTE with lenalidomide concomitantly used with ESAs in MDS patients, but the association was not statistically significant when lenalidomide was used in the absence of ESAs.
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ABSTRACT: Lenalidomide (Revlimid(®)), a thalidomide analogue, is an orally administered second generation immunomodulator with anti-angiogenic, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory and pro-erythropoietic properties. It is approved for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anaemia due to International Prognostic Scoring System low- or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with either chromosome 5q deletion [del(5q)] with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities (US, Japan and Switzerland etc.), or with an isolated del(5q) cytogenetic abnormality when other therapeutic options are insufficient or inadequate (EU) [featured indication]. In a randomized, double-blind, multicentre, registrational trial (MDS-004; n = 205) in this patient population, a significantly higher proportion of lenalidomide recipients than placebo recipients achieved red blood cell transfusion independence for ≥26 consecutive weeks (primary endpoint for efficacy) and cytogenetic responses. The erythroid response to lenalidomide was accompanied by an increase in the haemoglobin levels. These efficacy outcomes are generally consistent with those seen in an earlier noncomparative registrational trial (MDS-003; n = 148). In MDS-004, lenalidomide also significantly improved health-related quality of life compared with placebo at 12 weeks. Retrospective analyses that compared outcomes between lenalidomide-treated patients with low- or intermediate-1-risk del(5q) MDS and multicentre registry cohorts showed that lenalidomide treatment did not appear to increase the risk of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia. Lenalidomide had a manageable safety profile in the registrational trials, with ≤20 % of patients discontinuing treatment because of adverse events. The most common adverse events (incidence ≥20 %) occurring in lenalidomide recipients were thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, which were generally managed by dosage reductions and/or interruptions, and/or pharmacotherapy. Thus, lenalidomide is a useful option for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anaemia due to low- or intermediate-1-risk del(5q) MDS, with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities.Drugs 07/2013; 73(11). DOI:10.1007/s40265-013-0071-x · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lower risk MDS are defined as having low or intermediate 1 risk by the IPSS, and are mainly characterized by anemia in most cases. Supportive care, mainly red blood cell transfusions, remains an important component of their treatment, but expose patients to insufficient correction of anemia , alloimmunization, and organ iron overload (for which the role of iron chelation remains debated). Treatment aimed at preventing anemia recurrence should therefore be used whenever possible. ESAs remain the first line treatment of anemia in most lower risk MDS without del(5q), while anemia of low risk MDS with del 5q responds to Lenalidomide in two thirds of the cases, but this drug should be used cautiously because profound cytopenias may occur initially. Treatment after failure of those first line therapies are overall disappointing, many patients eventually requiring long-term transfusions, but encouraging results have been reported with hypomethylating agents and lenalidomide. Selected patients respond to antithymocyte globulins, while thrombopoeitin receptor agonists are under investigation in lower risk MDS with thrombocytopenia. Some patients, while remaining "lower risk" MDS, have severe cytopenias and/or poor prognostic factors using newer prognostic parameters, and/or resistance to treatment, making them rapidly candidates for more intensive approaches, including allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT).Blood 04/2013; 121(21). DOI:10.1182/blood-2013-02-453068 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of lenalidomide in the treatment of intermediate-1 risk non-5q deletion [non-del (5q)] myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A total of 30 patients with MDS were classified through G-banding chromosome karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). According to the International Prognostic Scoring System scores, among the 30 patients, 23 and seven cases had scores of 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. Lenalidomide (Revlimid(®)), 10 mg/day) was administered for 21 days every 28 days. All 30 cases were treated with lenalidomide for at least three cycles, including 20 cases with four cycles. The patients did not require erythropoietin, cyclosporine or iron chelation treatments. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software version 13.0, and comparisons among groups were conducted using a t-test. The efficacy of lenalidomide was demonstrated in patients with intermediate-1 risk non-del (5q) MDS. Peripheral blood cell counts were improved following treatment, and absolute neutrophil, haemoglobin and platelet counts increased following 2-4 cycles of treatment. All patients became stable having undergone three cycles of treatment; however, 17 patients with chromosomal abnormalities had no cytogenetic response to the treatment, as confirmed through the FISH test. Patients with intermediate-1 risk non-del (5q) MDS treated with lenalidomide did not achieve complete haematological remission, although they demonstrated haematological improvement.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 09/2013; 6(3):803-807. DOI:10.3892/etm.2013.1218 · 0.94 Impact Factor