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    ABSTRACT: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) has varying clinical (MSA-P versus MSA-C) and pathological [striatonigral degeneration (SND) versus olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA)] phenotypes. To investigate the spectrum of clinicopathological correlations, we performed a semi-quantitative pathological analysis of 100 MSA cases with well-characterized clinical phenotypes. In 24 areas, chosen from both the striatonigral (StrN) and olivopontocerebellar (OPC) regions, the severity of neuronal cell loss and gliosis as well as the frequency of glial (oligodendroglial) cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) were determined. Clinical information was abstracted from the patients' medical records, and the severity of bradykinesia in the first year of disease onset and in the final stages of disease was graded retrospectively. The degree of levodopa responsiveness and the presence or absence of cerebellar ataxia and autonomic symptoms were also recorded. We report that 34% of the cases were SND- and 17% were OPCA-predominant, while the remainder (49%) had equivalent SND and OPCA pathology. We found a significant correlation between the frequency of GCIs and the severity of neuronal cell loss, and between these pathological changes and disease duration. Our data also suggest that GCIs may have more influence on the OPC than on the StrN pathology. Moreover, we raise the possibility that a rapid process of neuronal cell loss, which is independent of the accumulation of GCIs, occurs in the StrN region in MSA. There was no difference in the frequency of NCIs in the putamen, pontine nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus between the SND and OPCA subtypes of MSA, confirming that this pathological abnormality is not associated with a particular subtype of the disease. In the current large post-mortem series, 10% of the cases had associated Lewy body pathology, suggesting that this is not a primary process in MSA. As might be expected, there was a significant difference in the severity of bradykinesia and the presence of cerebellar signs between the pathological phenotypes: the SND phenotype demonstrates the most severe bradykinesia and the OPCA phenotype the more frequent occurrence of cerebellar signs, confirming that the clinical phenotype is dependent on the distribution of pathology within the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Putaminal involvement correlated with a poor levodopa response in MSA. Our finding that relatively mild involvement of the substantia nigra is associated clinically with manifest parkinsonism, while more advanced cerebellar pathology is required for ataxia, may explain why the parkinsonian presentation is predominant over ataxia in MSA.
    Brain 01/2005; 127(Pt 12):2657-71. DOI:10.1093/brain/awh303 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accessing the stomach via a gastrostomy is the preferred method for providing enteral nutritional support when supplementation is required for more than three or four weeks. Since its introduction in the early 1980s, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy has become the most popular method for creating a gastrostomy. It is a quick and cost-effective method and has supplanted open gastrostomy for the establishment of a gastrocutaneous fistula to provide access to the stomach for numerous indications. It is associated, however, with serious and potentially lethal complications which must be completely understood by the endoscopist. In addition, patient selection and thorough attention to details are paramount to the performance of a safe percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
    Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America 08/1998; 8(3):551-68.
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    ABSTRACT: The role of central versus peripheral influence of dopamine (DA) in the genesis of emotional stress (ES) induced by fear to receive electric footshocks on colonic motility was evaluated in rats equipped with implanted electrodes on the proximal colon. In control rats, the frequency of colonic spike bursts increased from 7.5 +/- 1.9 to 16.0 +/- 2.1 per 10 min when the rats were placed in a test box where they had previously received electric footshocks. This increase induced by ES was significantly p less than 0.05, reduced by previous ICV or IP administration of (+)SCH 23390 (a D1 receptor antagonist) at doses of 10 and 100 micrograms/Kg, respectively. Although sulpiride (a D2 antagonist) injected ICV or IP at similar doses had no effect on the ES-induced increase in the frequency of colonic spike bursts. DA (100 micrograms/kg), and the selective D1 (SKF 38383) or D2 (quinpirole) receptor agonist injected ICV at a dose of 5 micrograms/kg also increased significantly by 48.7, 54.8, and 68.7%, respectively, the colonic spike burst frequency whereas they are inactive when injected IP at similar and higher doses. These results suggest that, in rats, (a) emotional stress stimulates colonic motility through the stimulation of dopaminergic neurons involving D1 receptors and (b) exogenous activation of central D1 and D2 receptors similarly stimulate colonic motility by increasing the occurrence of colonic spike bursts.
    Brain Research Bulletin 09/1992; 29(2):135-40. DOI:10.1016/0361-9230(92)90018-S · 2.72 Impact Factor
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