[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) has varying clinical (MSA-P versus MSA-C) and pathological [striatonigral degeneration (SND) versus olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA)] phenotypes. To investigate the spectrum of clinicopathological correlations, we performed a semi-quantitative pathological analysis of 100 MSA cases with well-characterized clinical phenotypes. In 24 areas, chosen from both the striatonigral (StrN) and olivopontocerebellar (OPC) regions, the severity of neuronal cell loss and gliosis as well as the frequency of glial (oligodendroglial) cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) were determined. Clinical information was abstracted from the patients' medical records, and the severity of bradykinesia in the first year of disease onset and in the final stages of disease was graded retrospectively. The degree of levodopa responsiveness and the presence or absence of cerebellar ataxia and autonomic symptoms were also recorded. We report that 34% of the cases were SND- and 17% were OPCA-predominant, while the remainder (49%) had equivalent SND and OPCA pathology. We found a significant correlation between the frequency of GCIs and the severity of neuronal cell loss, and between these pathological changes and disease duration. Our data also suggest that GCIs may have more influence on the OPC than on the StrN pathology. Moreover, we raise the possibility that a rapid process of neuronal cell loss, which is independent of the accumulation of GCIs, occurs in the StrN region in MSA. There was no difference in the frequency of NCIs in the putamen, pontine nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus between the SND and OPCA subtypes of MSA, confirming that this pathological abnormality is not associated with a particular subtype of the disease. In the current large post-mortem series, 10% of the cases had associated Lewy body pathology, suggesting that this is not a primary process in MSA. As might be expected, there was a significant difference in the severity of bradykinesia and the presence of cerebellar signs between the pathological phenotypes: the SND phenotype demonstrates the most severe bradykinesia and the OPCA phenotype the more frequent occurrence of cerebellar signs, confirming that the clinical phenotype is dependent on the distribution of pathology within the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Putaminal involvement correlated with a poor levodopa response in MSA. Our finding that relatively mild involvement of the substantia nigra is associated clinically with manifest parkinsonism, while more advanced cerebellar pathology is required for ataxia, may explain why the parkinsonian presentation is predominant over ataxia in MSA.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constipation is a prominent lower gastrointestinal tract dysfunction that occurs frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD).
To investigate colonic transport and dynamic rectoanal behaviour during filling and defecation in patients with PD.
Colonic transit time (CTT) and rectoanal videomanometry analyses were performed in 12 patients with PD (10 men and 2 women; mean age, 68 years, mean duration of disease, five years; mean Hoehn and Yahr grade, 3; decreased stool frequency (<3 times a week) in six, difficulty in stool expulsion in eight) and 10 age matched normal control subjects (7 men and 3 women; mean age, 62 years; decreased stool frequency in two, difficulty in stool expulsion in two).
In the PD patients, CTT was significantly prolonged in the rectosigmoid segment (p<0.05) and total colon (p<0.01) compared with the control subjects. At the resting state, anal closure and squeeze pressures of PD patients were lower than those in control subjects, though not statistically significant. However, the PD patients showed a smaller increase in abdominal pressure on coughing (p<0.01) and straining (p<0.01). The sphincter motor unit potentials of the patients were normal. During filling, PD patients showed normal rectal volumes at first sensation and maximum desire to defecate, and normal rectal compliance. However, they showed smaller amplitude in phasic rectal contraction (p<0.05), which was accompanied by an increase in anal pressure that normally decreased, together with leaking in two patients. During defecation, most PD patients could not defecate completely with larger post-defecation residuals (p<0.01). PD patients had weak abdominal strain and smaller rectal contraction on defecation than those in control subjects, though these differences were not statistically significant. However, the PD patients had larger anal contraction on defecation (p<0.05), evidence of paradoxical sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD).
Slow colonic transit, decreased phasic rectal contraction, weak abdominal strain, and PSD were all features in our PD patients with frequent constipation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accessing the stomach via a gastrostomy is the preferred method for providing enteral nutritional support when supplementation is required for more than three or four weeks. Since its introduction in the early 1980s, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy has become the most popular method for creating a gastrostomy. It is a quick and cost-effective method and has supplanted open gastrostomy for the establishment of a gastrocutaneous fistula to provide access to the stomach for numerous indications. It is associated, however, with serious and potentially lethal complications which must be completely understood by the endoscopist. In addition, patient selection and thorough attention to details are paramount to the performance of a safe percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America 08/1998; 8(3):551-68.
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