Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in advanced Parkinson's disease: five year follow-up.
ABSTRACT To assess the long-term efficacy and safety of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD).
42 consecutive patients with idiopathic PD treated with bilateral STN stimulation were enrolled. Parkinsonian status, medication intake and neuropsychological evaluation were assessed preoperatively and at 1 and 5 years postoperatively in on and off medication/on and off stimulation conditions.
23 patients could be followed-up 5 years after surgery. In the remaining cases, 5 died, 1 could not be assessed because of device removal for infection, 1 decided not to be stimulated, and 11 were lost of follow-up (one because of a liver carcinoma and the others because they refused the formal four conditions of assessment). STN stimulation reduced the UPDRS motor score by 55 % compared to baseline in the off-medication conditions. Tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural stability, and gait improved by 74 %, 66 %, 59 %, 17 % and 37 %, respectively. UPDRS part II scores were reduced by 38 %. The dopaminergic treatment daily dose was reduced by 54.4 % after surgery. Axial dopa-unresponsive signs worsened in some patients. Among the 42 initial patients we observed the following: 2 brain hemorrhages, 3 infections of the device, 2 phlebitis and 1 pulmonary embolism. In addition, 2 patients needed a repositioning of the electrode. Among the 23 patients followed at 5 years, long lasting side effects consisted in dysarthria (56 %), depression (39 %), eyelid opening apraxia (30.4 %) and apathy (4.3 %).
Our data confirm that bilateral STN stimulation is beneficial in the long-term for PD patients but does not prevent disease progression and the occurence of axial levodopa unresponsive signs in some patients.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this study, 23 asymmetrical Parkinson's disease patients were treated with unilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and followed up for 5 years. At 5 years after stimulation treatment, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II, III and axial symptom scores in the off-drug condition were significantly increased compared those at baseline. However, total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II, III and axial symptom scores were significantly lower with stimulation-on compared with the synchronous stimulation-off state in off-drug condition, and the motor symptoms of contralateral side limbs were effectively controlled. Only low Hoehn-Yahr stage was correlated with good long-term postoperative improvement in motor symptoms. The mean levodopa-equivalent daily dose after stimulation treatment was significantly lower than that before treatment, but dyskinesias became worse. Our experimental findings indicate that unilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for improving motor symptoms in well selected asymmetrical Parkinson's disease patients presenting no severe axial symptoms and dyskinesias.Neural Regeneration Research 06/2012; 7(18):1428-35. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.18.010 · 0.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Voice and speech disorders are one of the most important issues after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease patients; however, their characteristics remain unclear. We performed a comprehensive voice evaluation including the multi-dimensional voice program for acoustic analysis, the GRBAS scale for perceptual analysis, and the evaluation of the voice handicap index (VHI) for psychosocial analysis. In total, 68 patients who had undergone STN-DBS (37 assessed in the on- and off-stimulation conditions) and 40 who had been treated with medical therapy alone were evaluated. Further, we performed laryngoscopic examinations in 13 STN-DBS and 19 medical-therapy-alone patients. The STN-DBS group, especially females, showed widespread impairment of voice parameters and significantly poorer VHI scores than the medical-therapy-alone group. The degree of voiceless (DUV) and strained voice were the most impaired factors in the STN-DBS group; and DUV significantly improved after stopping stimulation. Furthermore strained voice, breathiness, and asthenia improved after stopping stimulation. Laryngoscopic examination showed that abnormal laryngeal muscle contraction and incomplete glottal closure were more prominent in the STN-DBS group than in the medical-therapy-alone group. We demonstrated that (1) more widespread voice impairment in females, (2) poorer voice-related QOL, (3) worse DUV and strained voice, and (4) abnormal laryngeal muscle contraction were the characteristic voice and laryngeal findings in the STN-DBS group compared with those in the medical-therapy-alone group.