Tissue-specific glucose toxicity induces mitochondrial damage in a burn injury model of critical illness.
ABSTRACT In critically ill patients, preventing hyperglycemia (HG) with insulin therapy partially prevented organ dysfunction and protected mitochondria. A study in a rabbit model of critical illness indicated that lower blood glucose level, rather than higher insulinemia, is a key factor in such organ protection. In this model, we now investigated the impact of blood glucose lowering vs. hyperinsulinemia (HI) on mitochondria in relation to organ damage. We assessed whether such effects on mitochondria are mediated indirectly via organ perfusion or directly via reducing cellular glucose toxicity.
Prospective, randomized laboratory investigation.
Three-month-old male rabbits.
After induction of critical illness by burn injury, followed by fluid-resuscitation and parenteral nutrition, rabbits were allocated to four groups, each a combination of normal or elevated blood glucose levels with normal or elevated insulin levels. This required alloxan administration, immediately followed by intravenous insulin and glucose infusions titrated to the respective targets.
In liver, the reduced damage by glucose lowering was not explained by better perfusion/oxygen delivery. Abnormal mitochondrial ultrastructure and function was present in the two hyperglycemic groups, most pronounced with concomitant HI. Affected mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities were reduced to 25% to 62% of values in healthy rabbits, in the presence of up to five-fold increased tissue levels of glucose. This was accompanied by elevated levels of dicarbonyls, which may mediate direct toxicity of cellular glucose overload and accelerated glycolysis. The abnormalities were also present in myocardium, although to a lesser extent, and absent in skeletal muscle.
In a rabbit model of critical illness, HG evokes cellular glucose overload in liver and myocardium inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, which explained the HG-induced organ damage. Maintenance of normoglycemia, but not HI, protects against such mitochondrial and organ damage.
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ABSTRACT: Background This study aims to test the hypothesis whether lowering glycemia improves mitochondrial function and thereby attenuates apoptotic cell death during resuscitated murine septic shock. Methods Immediately and 6 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), mice randomly received either vehicle or the anti-diabetic drug EMD008 (100 μg · g-1). At 15 h post CLP, mice were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, instrumented and rendered normo- or hyperglycemic (target glycemia 100 ± 20 and 180 ± 50 mg · dL-1, respectively) by infusing stable, non-radioactive isotope-labeled 13C6-glucose. Target hemodynamics was achieved by colloid fluid resuscitation and continuous i.v. noradrenaline, and mechanical ventilation was titrated according to blood gases and pulmonary compliance measurements. Gluconeogenesis and glucose oxidation were derived from blood and expiratory glucose and 13CO2 isotope enrichments, respectively; mathematical modeling allowed analyzing isotope data for glucose uptake as a function of glycemia. Postmortem liver tissue was analyzed for HO-1, AMPK, caspase-3, and Bax (western blotting) expression as well as for mitochondrial respiratory activity (high-resolution respirometry). Results Hyperglycemia lowered mitochondrial respiratory capacity; EMD008 treatment was associated with increased mitochondrial respiration. Hyperglycemia decreased AMPK phosphorylation, and EMD008 attenuated both this effect as well as the expression of activated caspase-3 and Bax. During hyperglycemia EMD008 increased HO-1 expression. During hyperglycemia, maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation rate was directly related to HO-1 expression, while it was unrelated to AMPK activation. According to the mathematical modeling, EMD008 increased the slope of glucose uptake plotted as a function of glycemia. Conclusions During resuscitated, polymicrobial, murine septic shock, glycemic control either by reducing glucose infusion rates or EMD008 improved glucose uptake and thereby liver tissue mitochondrial respiratory activity. EMD008 effects were more pronounced during hyperglycemia and coincided with attenuated markers of apoptosis. The effects of glucose control were at least in part due to the up-regulation of HO-1 and activation of AMPK. Keywords: Gluconeogenesis; Glucose uptake; Glucose oxidation; Mitochondrial respiration; Apoptosis; AMPK; HO-1Intensive care medicine experimental. 06/2014;
- Critical Care 03/2012; 16(1). · 4.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported outcome-associated decreases in muscle energetic status and mitochondrial dysfunction in septic patients with multiorgan failure. We postulate that survivors have a greater ability to maintain or recover normal mitochondrial functionality. To determine whether mitochondrial biogenesis, the process promoting mitochondrial capacity, is affected in critically ill patients. Muscle biopsies were taken from 16 critically ill patients recently admitted to intensive care (average 1-2 d) and from 10 healthy, age-matched patients undergoing elective hip surgery. Survival, mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial protein content and enzyme activity, mitochondrial biogenesis factor mRNA, microarray analysis, and phosphorylated (energy) metabolites were determined. Ten of 16 critically ill patients survived intensive care. Mitochondrial size increased with worsening outcome, suggestive of swelling. Respiratory protein subunits and transcripts were depleted in critically ill patients and to a greater extent in nonsurvivors. The mRNA content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (transcriptional coactivator of mitochondrial biogenesis) was only elevated in survivors, as was the mitochondrial oxidative stress protein manganese superoxide dismutase. Eventual survivors demonstrated elevated muscle ATP and a decreased phosphocreatine/ATP ratio. Eventual survivors responded early to critical illness with mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defense responses. These responses may partially counteract mitochondrial protein depletion, helping to maintain functionality and energetic status. Impaired responses, as suggested in nonsurvivors, could increase susceptibility to mitochondrial damage and cellular energetic failure or impede the ability to recover normal function. Clinical trial registered with clinical trials.gov (NCT00187824).American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/2010; 182(6):745-51. · 11.04 Impact Factor